Biological Aspects of Young and Middle Adulthood

Biological Aspects of Young and Middle Adulthood

Response 1

Respond to at least two colleagues whose classifications differ from your own by critiquing their classifications. In addition, suggest one way you might apply each colleague’s life-span classification to your social work practice.


Colleague 1: L

It is important because although; a young person may have held down a job, and acts mature, they have not yet experienced enough of life to be considered an adult. The same concept goes for middle aged people. Although; a middle aged person is active, and looks younger than their age, they are still considered to be middle aged. In other words regardless of the accomplishments of a person, their looks, and vitality, they are still catergorized in society by their age. Behaviors that might delay the cognitive, or social aspect of the aging process are socializing with friends and within the community, and participating in activities such as swimming, bingo, traveling, and other hobbies that enhance to cognitive apects of aging.It is proven that people who continue to be active socially, age gracefully, and without limits. They also continue to work brain cells that could eventually die out from dementia, and other illnesses.. Physically a person might speed up the aging process by isolating themselves from friends and family, by not focusing on health and nutrition, and by becoming a couch potato. When a person does not take care of themselves by exercising, and watching what they eat, they end up suffering from illnesses such as diabetes, limit their  mobility, and are eventually confined to walkers, wheelchairs, and medications in their later years of life.


Colleague 2: E

According to Zastrow & Kirst Ashman (2016), individuals within the ages of 18 and 65 years are classified as young and middle adulthood. In as much as this classification has been in existence and popular, one can argue that, to determine the term adult hood may not be as easy as it sounds. Adulthood can be perceived differently from people, considering their culture, religion, personal belief, and social economic background. According to Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman (2016), “it is difficult to pinpoint the exact time of life we are referring to when we talk about young adulthood”. Some cultures such as the Nigerian culture, consider adulthood as a period where a child can comfortably carter for his /herself without seeking the help of the parents/guardian. Such age range may be around the ages 27to 30.  Other cultures perceive young adulthood as the age where a child can comfortably make good decision in line with the expectation of older adults.

To replace or improve on Zatrow & Kirst Ashman classification on young and middle adulthood, I will suggest a classification of young adulthood and middle adulthood from the ages of 15 to 50. This classification is in line with Buhler theories of young adult hood. According to Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman (2016), Buhler’s theory clustered adolescent and young adulthood together to include the ages of 15 to 25. During this stage, people focus mostly on building their identity and developing on their life goals. Children within the age of 15 fall into this category, sharing similar development with young adulthood up to the age of 25. The next stage in my classification with reference to Buhler’s theory, is young and middle adulthood from the ages of 23 to 45 or 50. According to Zastrow & Kirst (2016), this age group focuses on accomplishing their goal, and maintaining their work and family system.

My second classification of young and middle adulthood is from the ages 17 to 50. This classification is similar to Levinson’s theory. According to Zastrow and Kirst-Ashman (2016), the Levinson theory, “broke up young adulthood into smaller slices”. “People go through stable periods separated by shorter transitional periods”. Between ages 17 to 22, a person exhibits choices about adult life, such as having a serious relationship, attending college or higher institution, seeking employment, and demanding to move out from home. Within the ages 22 to 28, a person makes more solid decision on work, education and relationship. At ages 28 to 33, marriage and children impacts on the person’s lifestyle or behavior. At the ages of 33 to 40 known as settling down period, a person makes progress on life set goals, with more responsibility. Between the ages of 40 to 45, known as mid-life transition age, a person starts to reevaluate his/her life and achievement, which may warrant some drastic life changes, such as divorce and career change. By the ages of 45 to 50, referred to as middle adulthood, people start making plans for future retirement, and evaluating their legacy.

As a social worker, my outlined classification, will create an understanding of people’s development and behavior, which will effectively impact one’s commitment to assist individuals with peculiar problems. There are people’s behavior and physical development, that are in line with the expected development of the clients based on his/her age. My classification will also encourage an opportunity to effectively understand the mental value of adolescent children, who invariably share similar biological, psychological, physical and social development with young adults within the age of 25.



Zastrow, C. H., & Kirst-Ashman, K. K. (2016). Understanding human behavior and the social environment (10th ed.)Boston, MA:  Cengage Learning.

Chapter 10, “Biological Aspects of Young and Middle Adulthood” (pp. 469-497



Response 2

Respond to at least two colleagues with a description of whether you see social workers as being proactive or reactive in the policy arena. Describe what steps could be taken to enhance the influence of the social work profession in defining social problems and creating social policy. Provide two suggestions on how social workers can make the recommended changes to the policy that your colleague described.


Colleague 1: L

The event that I chose that led to the formation of a social policy was the abduction of Amber Hageman, a nine year old girl from Arlington Texas. She was kidnapped, and murdered in 1996, and her incident gained national attention all over the world. On April 30th 2003 Public Law 108-21 was passed to prevent child abduction, and the sexual exploitation of children. This policy uses the police department, broad casters, and citizens of the state to be on the look out for abducted children. The alert sends out a discription of what the child was wearing, where they were last seen, and the person, or car the child was last seen with or in. This policy has aided in finding many children across the world but, has one clause in it that I would change. The clause states that a child must be at risk for serious bodily harm, or death before an alarm can be issued. I would change this clause because, the child might not be in harms way if abducted. Some children are abducted by people that love them such a estranged mother’s and father;s, and by those that would not harm the child in any form. Just the fact that the child is missing serves as enough criteria to send an Amber Alert out  from state to state. As a social worker my role in changing this law would be to use the rational decision making approach by gathering information about the policy, and by teaming up with parents, and people in the community with young children under the age of 17, or with an interest in protecting children om predators and pedophiles. As mentioned in this weeks readings, “Decision makers review the range of existing and proposed policies, identiy all the relevant social goals and values, and study the consequences of each policy alternative”, (Popple & Leighninger, 2015, p.255). This issue would be presented to mayors, and officials within our state and on a local level. However; it could  later be presented to representatives of state if nothing is done on a local level. In order for a social worker to be effective in caring out the process of policy change, he or she needs to several skills and strategies. As mentioned in this weeks readings, “They need analytic skills to evaluate social problems, and develop policy proposals, analyze the severity of specific problems, identify barriers to policy implementation, and develop strategies for assessing programs”, (Popple & Leighninger, 2015, p.25-25).




Popple, P.R., & Leighninger, L. (2015). The policy-based profession: An introduction to social welfare policy analysis for social workers. (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education. Chapter 1, ” The Policy-Based Profession” (pp. 5-19)