How to reference 5 Paraphrasing 5 In-text references 5 Author prominent 5 Information prominent 6 What is plagiarism?

How to reference 5 Paraphrasing 5 In-text references 5 Author prominent 5 Information prominent 6 What is plagiarism?

Why reference/cite? 5 How to reference 5 Paraphrasing 5 In-text references 5 Author prominent 5 Information prominent 6 What is plagiarism? 6 Use of italics 6 Use of quotation marks 6 Quotations of 40 or more words 7 Quote within a quote

ALC An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style Academic Learning Centre Academic Communication An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style (6th edition), an Author-Date System based on American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. Maintained by Academic Learning Services Unit Edition 2013 Published by CQUniversity Australia COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA WARNING This Material has been reproduced and communicated to you by or on behalf of CQUniversity pursuant to Part VB of the Copyright Act 1968 (the Act). The material in this communication may be subject to copyright under the Act. Any further reproduction or communication of this material by you may be the subject of copyright protection under the Act. Do not remove this notice. CQUniversity CRICOS Codes: 00219C – Qld; 01315F – NSW; 01624D – Vic Table of Contents Why reference/cite? 5 How to reference 5 Paraphrasing 5 In-text references 5 Author prominent 5 Information prominent 6 What is plagiarism? 6 Use of italics 6 Use of quotation marks 6 Quotations of 40 or more words 7 Quote within a quote 7 Capitalisation 7 Quoting incorrect spelling, punctuation or grammar from an original source 8 Page numbers 8 Quoting online material that has no page numbers 8 Use of ‘et al.’ 8 Use of city, state, country location information 8 Difference between a reference list and a bibliography 9 Formatting your reference list 9 Referencing a source not covered by the APA manual 9 Journal articles and periodicals 10 Journal article 10 A journal article with a DOI 10 Online journal article from a database with no DOI 11 Issue numbers 11 Using URL references 11 Unpublished sources 12 Appendices 12 When to use numbers expressed in words 12 When to use numbers expressed as numerals 12 APA formatting 12 BOOKS 14 JOURNALS 28 REPORTS 33 CONFERENCE PAPERS 35 UNIVERSITY MATERIALS 36 GOVERNMENT & LEGISLATION 39 ELECTRONIC SOURCES 44 SPECIALISED SOURCES 48 REFERENCES 57 APPENDIX A—TABLE FORMAT 60 APPENDIX B—FIGURE FORMAT 62 INDEX 63 5 Why reference/cite? References must be provided whenever you use someone else’s opinions, theories, data or organisation of material. You need to reference information from books, articles, DVDs, the World Wide Web, other print or electronic sources and personal communications. A reference is required if you:  quote (use someone else’s exact words)  copy (use figures, tables or structure)  paraphrase (convert someone else’s ideas into your own words)  summarise (give a brief account of someone else’s ideas). How to reference There are two parts to the APA system of referencing: 1. The author and the date are referred to in the text or main body of your writing (called in-text referencing or citing). 2. All of the resources referred to in the body of the writing are included in the reference list at the end of the assignment. All information is included in this list: author, date, title of publication, and publication and/or retrieval information. When you reference sources of information in the text of your assignment—regardless of whether you quote, paraphrase or summarise—you should include:  the author’s surname (family name)  the year of publication  page numbers when directly quoting or closely paraphrasing an author’s words  correct punctuation and spacing. Your reference list includes full details of all sources you have referred to in the assignment in alphabetical order. Paraphrasing Paraphrasing is putting someone else’s ideas into your own words. When you paraphrase, you must provide an in-text reference to show that the material comes from another source. When you reference a paraphrase in text, you must provide the author and year of publication. You may also provide the page number, if you think it would be helpful to your reader; in APA style, providing a page number for paraphrased material is optional. In-text references There are two ways of referencing (citing): author prominent and information prominent. Author prominent This is when you give prominence to the author by using the author’s surname (family name) as part of your sentence with the date and the page number in parentheses (round brackets). 6 Direct quote example: Unterhalter (2007, p. 5) argues that “gender equality in schooling is an aspiration of global social justice.” Paraphrase example: Unterhalter (2007, p. 5) suggests that equal treatment of the genders in education should be an issue of justice for every society. Note: Include the page number when quoting the author’s exact words as well as when paraphrasing information from a specific sentence, paragraph, chapter, table or chart. Information prominent The other way of referencing (citing) gives prominence to the information, with all the required referencing details in parentheses at the end of the citation. Direct quote example: It has been argued that “gender equality in schooling is an aspiration of global social justice” (Unterhalter, 2007, p. 5). Paraphrase example: Equal treatment of gender in education should be an aim of every society (Unterhalter 2007, p. 5). Note: Include the page number when quoting the author’s exact words as well as when paraphrasing information from a specific sentence, paragraph, chapter, table or chart. What is plagiarism? Plagiarism is the intentional use of someone else’s ideas, words or concepts in your assignment work without appropriate acknowledgment. It is considered serious misconduct at university and should be avoided at all times. CQUniversity has a policy on plagiarism and you are strongly encouraged to familiarise yourself with it. The following URLs will lead you to: CQUniversity’s Plagiarism Procedures http://policy.cqu.edu.au/Policy/policy_file.do?policyid=1244 Student Misconduct and Plagiarism policy http://policy.cqu.edu.au/Policy/policy_file.do?policyid=1245 Committing plagiarism can carry very serious penalties for students, including expulsion from the university. Use of italics Italics are used for the name of a journal, newspaper, magazine, book, film, website, etc. The exception is informally published materials. In blog posts, YouTube videos, message board posts, etc. do not use italics. (APA, 2010, pp. 104–106, Section 4.21) Use of quotation marks Double quotation marks are used around direct quotes of fewer than 40 words. (APA, 2010, p. 170, Section 6.03) 7 Quotations of 40 or more words These should be formatted as a freestanding block of text as follows:  omit quotation marks  indent the block 1.25 cm from the left margin (the same indent used for a new paragraph)  use double line spacing  use the same font and size as the text  give the source and page number in brackets after the final full-stop. (APA, 2010, p. 171, Section 6.03) For example: Scholarly work is required to meet certain standards in order to be published: Academic material of standing is peer reviewed—that is, prior to publication the article or book written by an author (or authors) is sent out to other academics in the same field to be reviewed and the authors then revise their material based on the recommendations of the reviewers. (Taines, 2008, p. 29) Quote within a quote When a quote appears within a quote use single quote marks. For example: “The first words of Melville’s Moby Dick are ‘Call me Ishmael’ and these words are full of significance” was the first statement in Smith’s memorable speech (Johns, 1995, p. 43). Capitalisation APA style uses minimal capitalisation for the titles of books, book chapters, journal articles, reports and websites, but maximal capitalisation for the titles of journals and other periodicals. In minimal capitalisation, only the first word is capitalised, regardless of how it is capitalised in the original title. If there is a subtitle, capitalise the first word of the subtitle (i.e. the first word after the colon). Note that proper nouns (such as the names of people, places and organisations) should always be capitalised. In maximal capitalisation, all major words are capitalised. Words that are not capitalised include articles (‘a’, ‘an’, ‘the’) and prepositions (e.g. ‘for’, ‘on’, ‘of’). For example, Journal of Sociology, Sydney Morning Herald, Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing. 8 Quoting incorrect spelling, punctuation or grammar from an original source The manual states, “Direct quotations must be accurate … . If any incorrect spelling, punctuation, or grammar in the source might confuse readers, insert the word sic, italicized and bracketed, immediately after the error in the quotation.” For example, “ … italicized [sic] and bracketed” (APA, 2010, p. 172, Section 6.06). Page numbers Always give the page number for a direct quotation, or when referring to a specific diagram, table or chart. When paraphrasing, providing a page number is optional. The word “page” is abbreviated to p. If there are two or more pages, use pp. For example: (Smith, 2012, p. 6), or (Smith, 2012, pp. 12-15). Quoting online material that has no page numbers Normally, direct quotations are cited with author, year and page number in brackets but many electronic sources do not provide page numbers. In this case, if there are paragraph numbers, use the paragraph number in place of the page number, with the abbreviation para. for a direct quote. For example: A BP spokesman reported that “The new construction includes a containment cap with a built-in ‘blow-out preventer’, the device that failed to cut off the oil flow” (Mann, 2010, para. 4). If there are no paragraph numbers but there are headings, cite the first three or four words of the heading and the number of the paragraph following it. You will need to count the paragraphs yourself. For example: (Education for Change, 2009, “Our growth plan”, para. 2). (APA, 2010, pp. 171–172, Section 6.05) Use of ‘et al.’ For references with two authors, give both authors’ names in every in-text reference. For references with three, four or five authors, list all the authors’ names in your first intext reference. In second and subsequent references to the same work, give only the first author’s name followed by ‘et al.’ (which stands for ‘and others’). For example: (Chaffee, McMahon, & Stout, 2000) is followed by (Chaffee et al., 2000). For references with six or more authors, give only the first author’s name followed by ‘et al.’ in every in-text reference. Note that et al. should not be in italics and there should always be a full-stop after al. Use of city, state, country location information Provide city and state for US and Australian publications, e.g., Princeton, NJ; Rockhampton, Qld. Provide city, state and country for all other publications. (APA, 2010, p. 186, Section 6.30) 9 Difference between a reference list and a bibliography A reference list includes all the sources of information that have been cited (referenced) intext in a piece of work and is located at the end of the piece of work and arranged in alphabetical order. A bibliography lists all works consulted when preparing a piece of work whether or not the work has been cited in the document. This means that all the works referred to within the document as well as all works consulted but not referred to would appear in the bibliography in alphabetical order. Unless your assignment instructions specifically request a bibliography, a reference list is generally all that is required. If your assignment task specifies there is no need for in-text referencing but asks for a bibliography, the bibliography will list in alphabetical order all the resources you consulted for the task. The bolded heading of Bibliography would be used. Formatting your reference list When formatting your reference list, use the following guidelines:  begin your reference list on a new page  use the heading References centred  use a hanging indent throughout, i.e., the first line of each reference should be flush with the left margin, while the second and any subsequent lines should be indented (in Word, this can be achieved by selecting your reference list and using the key combination Ctrl-T).  do not leave a blank line after each reference  use double-line spacing throughout  put your list in alphabetical order by author’s surname/family name. See the reference list at the end of this document for an example. Referencing a source not covered by the APA manual This will happen rarely, but should it happen to you, this is what the manual has to say: Because one purpose of listing references is to enable readers to retrieve and use the sources, each entry usually contains the following elements: author, year of publication, title, and publishing or retrieval data—all information necessary for unique identification and library search. (APA, 2010, p. 193, Section 7) You can also find additional examples on the APA website: http://www.apastyle.org See especially the tutorial on The Basics of APA Style. 10 Journal articles and periodicals When referencing a journal article in the reference list, the following elements should be presented in this order:  surname (family name) and initials of author(s)  year of publication  title of article in minimal capitalisation  title of journal or periodical in italics and maximal capitalisation  volume number in italics  issue number in brackets (or other identifier, such as season or month) where applicable  page number(s) on which the article begins and ends. Journal article Peterson, J., & Schmidt, A. (1999). Widening the horizons for secondary schools. Journal of Secondary Education, 3(8), 89–106. A journal article with a DOI Many journal articles and other online documents are assigned a Digital Object Identifier, or DOI. A DOI is a unique string of letters and numbers that identifies a document. All DOIs begin with the number 10. They can often be found on the first page of a journal article, or in the database citation information. A DOI can also be given in the form of a web address: http://dx.doi.org/ Authors’ surnames and initials Year of publication Title of article in minimal capitalisation Italics and maximal capitalisation for the title of the journal Volume number in italics Page numbers Full stop at the end Issue number in brackets (only needed if each issue is paginated separately) 11 If the article or other document you are citing has a DOI, this should be included at the end of the reference. No other retrieval information is then necessary. Wherever possible, copy and paste the DOI to ensure accuracy. When adding the DOI use the following format: doi:10xxxx/xxxxxxxxxx or http://dx.doi.org/xxxxxxxxxxx For example: Shariff, J. F. (2011). Navigating assisted death and end-of-life care. CMAJ, 183(6), 643–644. doi:10.1503/cmaj.091845 Online journal article from a database with no DOI If you find a journal article online through CQUniversity Library Discover It! or through an online database with no DOI then give the web address (URL) of the home page of the journal, magazine or newsletter. You may have to do a web search to find this. Andrew, M., & Romova, Z. (2012). Genre, discourse and imagined communities: The learning gains of academic writing learners. Journal of Academic Language and Learning, 6(1). Retrieved from http://journal.aall.org.au/ Note: Open the URL and see that it is the home page of the journal. The journal will have a search function. Issue numbers Note: Issue numbers are only needed if the journal is paginated separately by issue (i.e., if each issue begins at page 1). If a journal, magazine or newsletter does not use volume numbers but gives the season or the month, include the season or month after the year. For example: Beemster, M. (2008, Spring). Saving the Southern Bell Frog. Australian Landcare, 27–29. Chandler-Crisp, S. (1988, May). “Aerobic” writing: A writing practice model. Writing Lab Newsletter, pp. 9–11. If a periodical does not have a volume number but is published frequently, give the month and day of publication after the year. For example: Kauffmann, S. (1993, October 18). On films: Class consciousness. The New Republic, 30. Using URL references Be aware that most word processing packages will automatically underline the Internet address—the examples in the APA manual are not underlined (do not have a hyperlink) so you will need to remove the underline. Highlight the URL, click off the underline icon, and change the font colour to black. 12 Unpublished sources Always try to use published materials for your paper. Unpublished materials usually comprise theses or papers/abstracts presented at a conference. Be wary of using them. If in doubt, consult your lecturer to see if the resource can be used. If you want to use material from one of your previous assessment tasks, you must ask the lecturer for permission to do so. Appendices An appendix comprises supplementary material that is collected and appended at the back of a book or report—supporting evidence for your assignment. The word Appendices is the plural form. Appendices go after the reference list. Each appendix is a separate item and goes on a separate page. They are usually lettered, not numbered—Appendix A, Appendix B and so on. Any tables or figures in an appendix take their caption from that appendix, e.g., in Appendix A, the table would be Table A1; likewise for a figure, Figure A1 and so on. When to use numbers expressed in words In a text where numbers are not a significant focus, use words for numbers up to one hundred. In addition, use words for common fractions, e.g., “one-fifth of the class.” Use numerals for numbers over nine in documents where numbers occur frequently. A number, however, is always expressed in words at the beginning of a sentence, e.g., “Forty-eight per cent of the sample … .” Check out the number examples on this site: http://www.apastyle.org/learn/faqs/numbers-aswords.aspx When to use numbers expressed as numerals Use figures for numbers:  preceding measurement, e.g., 3 cm  grouped in figures, e.g., 3 of 21  used as statistics, e.g., 4% of the population  used in times, dates, ages, money. APA formatting Most disciplines at CQUniversity Australia that use the APA referencing style do not require their students to adhere to the APA formatting guidelines in presenting their papers. For those students who are required to use APA formatting (such as psychology students), you can find advice at the following websites: 13  Owl at Purdue: examples of headers on the title page and the abstract http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/  A screencast presentation posted by David Peak to guide you through the formatting of headers http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9pbUoNa5tyY&annotation_id=annotation_38487 5&feature=iv You can find excellent advice about APA style, including both referencing and formatting, at the APA’s style blog: http://blog.apastyle.org/ 14 What follows is a set of guidelines on which you may model future referencing. You may find that the examples given do not always reflect exactly the details for a resource which you wish to reference. In this case, include the details you consider would be needed to locate that resource. If you are concerned, check with your lecturer. Remember: Always include the page number when quoting the author’s exact words. For a paraphrase, the page number is optional. Books Books In-text referencing Model to follow in a reference list One author Give a page number if a direct quote or if specific information is given when paraphrasing, e.g., specific sentence, paragraph, chapter, table, chart or graph. Russell-Bowie (2005, p. 14) found that “ … .” OR … as suggested in the literature (RussellBowie, 2005). Note: If the quote marks come at the end of the sentence, place the full stop inside the final quotation marks; otherwise the full stop goes after the in-text reference/citation. Russell-Bowie, D. (2005). MMADD about the arts! An introduction to primary arts education. South Melbourne, Vic: Pearson Education Australia. Two authors A recent study (Wyn & White, 2008) predicted that … OR Wyn and White (2008, p. 17) pointed out that “… .” Note: Use an ampersand (&) within the parentheses, but use the word “and” in your sentence. Wyn, J., & White, R. (2008). Youth and society (2nd ed.). Sydney, NSW: Oxford University Press. 15 Books In-text referencing Model to follow in a reference list Three to five authors Note: First reference uses all the authors’ surnames and then only the first author’s surname followed by et al. is used for subsequent references. A recent study (Carmona, Heath, Oc, & Tiesdell, 2003) highlighted that … OR Carmona, Heath, Oc, and Tiesdell (2003, p. 28) stated that “… .” Subsequent references: (Carmona et al., 2003, p. 33) or Carmona et al. (2003) Carmona, M., Heath, T., Oc, T., & Tiesdell, S. (2003). Public spaces—urban spaces: The dimensions of urban design. Oxford, UK: Architectural Press. 16 Books In-text referencing Model to follow in a reference list Six /seven authors More than seven authors The comprehensive study (Arnold et al., 2005, p. 50) highlighted that “… .” OR Arnold et al. (2005) supported the theory … Note: If there are six or more authors/editors, use et al. from the very first reference in text. Arnold, J., Silvester, J., Patterson, F., Robertson, I., Cooper C. L., & Burnes, B. (2005). Work psychology: Understanding human behavior in the workplace (4th ed.). Harlow, London, UK: Pearson Education Ltd. Note: 1: When a reference has six/seven authors (or editors), all the names are given in the reference list. Note: 2: If there are more than seven authors (or editors), give the names of the first six authors/editors followed by an ellipsis (three dots) and the name of the last author/editor. Lawall, S., Mack, M., Clinton, J.W., Danly, R.L., Douglas, K., Hugo, H.E., Irele, F.A., … Wellek, R. (Eds.). (2003). The Norton anthology of world literature (2nd ed.). New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company. 17 Books In-text referencing Model to follow in a reference list Additional authors listed after the word with on the title page. Usually the importance of these other authors is denoted by their names being on the book cover. Marzano and Pickering (1997) point out …. Dimensions of Learning is defined as …… (Marzano & Pickering, 1997). Note: Authors’ names listed after the word with are not used in the in-text reference. Marzano, R. J., & Pickering, D. J. (with Arrendondo, D. E., Paynter, D. E., Blackburn, G. J., Brandt, R. S., Moffet, C. A., Pollock, J. E., & Whistler, J. S.). (1997). Dimensions of learning teacher’s manual (2nd ed.). Alexandra, VA: ASCD. Multiple works by the same author University research (Brown, 1982, 1988) has indicated that … Note: Place chronologically—oldest reference first. Brown, P. (1982). Corals in the Capricorn group. Rockhampton, Qld: Central Queensland University, School of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Brown, P. (1988). The effects of anchors on corals. Rockhampton, Qld: Central Queensland University, School of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. 18 Books In-text referencing Model to follow in a reference list Multiple works published in the same year by the same author Marzano and Pickering (2006a) set out methods of teaching students how to build up their academic vocabulary. According to Marzano and Pickering (2006b), there should be emphasis placed on identifying declarative and procedural knowledge in the planning process of a unit. Note: Add a, b, c, and so on to differentiate between works in the same year—which should be listed alphabetically in the reference list by title of article, chapter or complete work. Marzano, R.J., & Pickering, D.J. (2006a). Building academic vocabulary: Teacher’s manual. Heatherton, Vic: Hawker Brownlow Education. Marzano, R.J., & Pickering, D.J. (2006b). Dimensions of learning: Teacher’s manual (2nd ed.). Heatherton, Vic: Hawker Brownlow Education. Note: In the reference list, the works are listed in alphabetical order of the titles. Works by different authors with the same surname A report (J. Smith, 1998) showed that … R. Smith (1999, pp. 47–50) found that “… .” Smith, J. (1998). The world’s polluted oceans. Sydney, NSW: Pacific. Smith, R. (1999). Evolution and religion. Adelaide, SA: Firth. Primary source Nightingale (1858) analysed the household environment and physical conditions as part of her sustainable design theory. Nightingale, F. (1858). Notes on nursing: What it is, and what it is not. London, UK: Harrison and Sons. 19 Handbook, e.g., MIMS drug handbook (hard copy) Correct drug dosage amounts and common allergic reactions to drugs are crucial to choosing the correct drug for a patient (MIMS Australian, 2003). MIMS Australia. (2003). MIMS annual Australian edition. Crows Nest, NSW: IMS Publishing. Second or later edition Kassin (2004, p. 5) stated that “… .” OR The latest theory (Kassin, 2004) on group dynamics … Kassin, S. (2004). Psychology (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education. Several sources are cited at the same time Note: Do not overdo this – cite only the most relevant sources. Potter and Perry (2005) and Pairman, Pincombe, Thorogood, and Tracey (2006) all agree … OR Recent studies (Pairman, Pincombe, Thorogood, & Tracey, 2006; Potter & Perry, 2005) agree … Note: Multiple references in the same set of brackets are given in the same alphabetical order as they would appear in the reference list. Pairman, S., Pincombe, J., Thorogood, C., & Tracey, S. (2006). Midwifery, preparation for practice. Sydney, NSW: Churchill Livingstone, Elsevier. Potter, P., & Perry, A.G. (2005). Fundamentals of nursing. Sydney, NSW: Mosby, Elsevier. 20 No author’s name appears but there is a sponsoring body A study (Queensland Ambulance Service, 2007) has suggested … OR The Queensland Ambulance Service (2007) has found that … Note: Cite the sponsoring organisation in place of the author. Queensland Ambulance Service. (2007). In-service education. Retrieved from https://desportal.emergency.qld.gov.au No author’s name and no sponsoring body A study (Family Policies, 1996) showed that … Note: Use the title of the work in place of the author’s name, both in text and in the reference list. If the title is very long, use only the first few words in your in-text reference. Be wary of these resources. Family policies. (1996). Canberra, ACT: Australian Government Publishing Service. No author’s name and 2nd or later edition A study (Practical Design, 1992) showed that … Practical design (2nd ed.). (1992). Adelaide, SA: South Australian Design Press. Edited work in which the role of the editor is more significant than that of individual authors (e.g., a collection of essays compiled by the editor) Danaher (1998, p. 87) indicated that “… .” OR Related essays edited by Danaher (1998) suggested … OR Related essays (Danaher, 1998) suggested … Danaher, P. (Ed.). (1998). Beyond the Ferris wheel. Rockhampton, Qld: CQU Press. 21 Chapter in edited work According to Nasser (2000, p. 130), “… .” Nasser, J. (2000). The evaluative image of place. In W. Walsh, K. Craik, & R. Price (Eds.), Person-environment psychology: New directions and perspectives (2nd ed., pp. 117–68). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Compiled package— unpublished The Gladstone Hospital’s learning package compiled by Dawson (2009) outlines the rules for epidural injections. Dawson, A. (Comp.). (2009). Gladstone health service epidural learning package: Epidural self directed learning package. Gladstone, Qld: Gladstone Hospital. Compiled textbook or learning package using various sources— published It is important to use sources effectively (CQUniversity, 2010). CQUniversity. (Comp.). (2010). ESSC11004 Study and research skills for health science. Sydney, NSW: McGraw Hill Australia. Note: If you are using a chapter from a compiled book use the same format as Chapter in an edited book using (Comp.) for compiler instead of (Ed.) for editor. One volume of multivolume work Dawson and Browning (1986) highlighted a case where … Dawson, P., & Browning, M. C. (Eds.). (1986). The world at war: Vol. 3, The Asian conflict. Hammondsport, NY: Penguin. 22 One issue in a series that does not have regular publication dates The study concluded “…” (Healey, 1999, p. 4). Healey, K. (Ed.). (1999). Issues in society: Recycling. 114. Wentworth Falls, NSW: Spinney Press. No date can be established Lansdowne (n.d.) found that … OR It was found (Lansdowne, n.d.) that … Lansdowne, M. (n.d.). Bridging courses. Rockhampton, Qld: Central Queensland University. The date can be established but only approximately In a draft policy release, the Queensland Education Department (c. 1995) suggested that … Queensland Education Department. (c. 1995). Draft policy on school discipline. Gladstone, Qld: Author. A translation of a foreign language book “I spent a few months in that city where the spirit of freedom and tolerance agreed with me” (Poulin, 2009, p. 18). Poulin, J. (2009). Translation is a love affair. (S. Fischman, Trans.). Brooklyn, NY: Archipelago Books. (Original work published in 2006) 23 Book review Kellman (2009) gives short shrift to Poulin’s idea that … Kellman, S. G. (2009). Translation’s trail [Review of the book Translation is a love affair, by J. Poulin]. American Book Review. Retrieved from http://americanbookreview.org/sampleReview.asp?Issue=13& id=28 Referring to an author (primary reference) read about in another publication (secondary reference) Note: Try to locate and use the primary source if possible. Simpson (1975, as cited in Cole, 1992, p. 71) stated that “… .” OR Simpson’s observations in 1975 (as cited in Cole, 1992) led to … OR Learning is a process of association and development (Simpson, 1975, as cited in Cole, 1992, p. 71) whereby students progress by incremental steps … OR Cole (1992, p. 71), in reporting Simpson’s study, stated “… .” Cole, P. (1992). Teaching and learning. Yeppoon, Qld: Capricorn Press. Note: Include only the author of the secondary source (i.e., where you read about the primary source) in the reference list. You do not need to include the primary source in your reference list. 24 Referring to two primary references within one secondary reference Heath and Johnson (as cited in Morris, 1998, p. 25) stated that “… .” Note: Morris is the author of the secondary source so his name will appear in the reference list. Morris, M. (1998). Critical reflection on distance education. Brisbane, Qld: Goprint. Book available as a CQUniversity Course Resource Online (CRO) Huffman, Vernoy, and Vernoy (2000). … Huffman, K., Vernoy, M., & Vernoy, J. (2000). Psychology in action (5th ed.). New York, NY: J. Wiley & Sons. Note: Treat the resource as a print one. 25 Electronic version of a print book (e.g., Kindle or Google books) Gesser (2001) points out … Judaism, Christianity and Islam share many … (Peters, 2003). According to Ochs (2004, p. 55) … Gesser, H. D. (2001). Applied chemistry: A textbook for engineers and technologists [Kindle Edition]. Retrieved from http://www.amazon.com Peters, F.E. (2003). The monotheists: The words and will of God (Vol. 2). Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books Ochs, S. (2004). A history of nerve functions: From animal spirits to molecular mechanisms [ebrary Reader version]. Retrieved from http://www.ebrary.com/corp/ Note: For the electronic version of a print book, include information on the electronic edition (if available) in square brackets after the title. There is no need to include the publisher or place of publication. If there is a DOI, include it at the end. No further retrieval information is then needed. If there is no DOI, give either the full URL (Website address) or the URL of the home page from which the book is accessible. Electronic-only book A number of examples are provided in Picture poetry for very busy teachers (n.d.). Picture poetry for very busy teachers. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.heatherenepress.com.au Note: This example has no author and no date. For e-books with an author and a date, these would go before the title, as for any other reference. 26 Electronic version of a republished book The seminal work of Rorschach (1921/2007) on psychodiagnostics is … Note: Give both the date the work was originally published and the date of the version you are using, with the original publication date first. Rorschach, H. (2007). Psychodiagnostics. In P. Lemkau & B. Kronenberg (Eds. & Trans.), Psychodiagnostics: A diagnostic test based on perception (5th ed.). Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books (Original work published 1921) Chapter in an edited e-book Bartelds, Heidi, McFeat, and Boller (2004) describe the basic principles of … Bartelds, G., Heidi, J.H., McFeat, J., & Boller, C. (2004). Introduction. In W.J. Staszewski, C. Boller, & G.R. Tomlinson (Eds.), Health monitoring of aerospace structures (pp. 1–28) [PDF for Digital Edition]. Retrieved from http://www.ebooks.com/ebooks/book_display.asp?IID=17504 8 Electronic book chapter with DOI According to Baranski (2011), … Baranski, J. V. (2011). Sleep loss and the ability to self-monitor cognitive performance. In P. L. Ackerman (Ed.), Cognitive fatigue: Multidisciplinary perspectives on current research and future applications (pp. 67–82). Washington, DC, USA: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/12343-003 27 e-Book available via ACQUIRE “It is vital if quality and technology are … outcomes at individual and institutional levels” (McConachie, Singh, Danaher, Nouwens, & Danaher, 2008, p. 2). In subsequent entries use McConachie et al. McConachie, J., Singh, M., Danaher, P., Nouwens, F., & Danaher, G. (Eds.). (2008). Changing university learning and teaching: Engaging and mobilising leadership, quality and technology. Teneriffe, Qld: Post Pressed. Retrieved from http://hdl.cqu.edu.au/10018/27433 e-Book chapter available via ACQUIRE According to O’Neill, Knight, and WalkerGibbs (2005), the role … O’Neill, P., Knight, B. A., & Walker-Gibbs, B. (2005). Issues for teacher education in an information age: The role of collegial learning. In B. A. Knight, B. Walker-Gibbs & A. G. Harrison (Eds.), Researching educational capital in a technological age (pp. 203–218). Teneriffe, Qld: Post Pressed. Retrieved from http://hdl.cqu.edu.au/10018/18930 28 Journals Journal articles In-text referencing Model to follow in a reference list Journal article with a DOI, any medium (e.g. online, available via Discover it!, or in print) According to Shariff (2011), … Shariff, J. F. (2011). Navigating assisted death and end-of-life care. CMAJ, 183(6), 643–644. doi:10.1503/cmaj.091845 Note: The DOI number is all that is needed as a location point. Journal article with no DOI available via Discover It! or other Library database The importance of adequate chemical protective clothing … (Gavenith, den Hartof, & Martini, 2001). Gavenith, G., den Hartog, E., & Martini, S. (2011). Heat stress in chemical protective clothing. Ergonomics, 54(5), 497–507. Retrieved from http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/terg Note: If a journal article does not have a DOI number, give the home page URL of the journal itself – do not include Discover it! Electronic journal article without a DOI According to Andrew and Romova (2012), … Andrew, M., & Romova, Z. (2012). Genre, discourse and imagined communities: The learning gains of academic writing learners. Journal of Academic Language and Learning, 6(1). Retrieved from http://journal.aall.org.au/ Note: If a journal article does not have a DOI number, give the home page URL of the journal itself. You may have to search for this. 29 Journal articles In-text referencing Model to follow in a reference list A stand-alone document that is not part of a journal or book but found within the following Library databases: JBI COnNECT+, MIMS Online, and ERIC. One strategy to treat a pressure ulcer is … (Griggs, 2008). Anamorph is a form of morphine, a narcotic used for pain relief (MIMS Australia, 2003). Vanlint and Nugent (2006) go on to say … Griggs, K. (2008). Evidence summary: Chronic wound management. http://connect.jbiconnectplus.org/default.aspx MIMS Australia. (2003). Anamorph. https://www.mimsonline.com.au/Search/Search.aspx Vanlint, S., & Nugent, M. (2006). Vitamin D and fractures in people with intellectual disability. http://www.eric.ed.gov/ Note: Give the home page URL of the publisher website (you may have to search for this), not the database name or URL. Journal article, one or two authors (print) Peterson and Schmidt (1999) maintain that … Peterson, J., & Schmidt, A. (1999). Widening the horizons for secondary schools. Journal of Secondary Education, 3(8), 89– 106. Note: 3 refers to the volume and (8) to the number or issue. The final numbers (89–106) are the page numbers on which the article begins and ends. 30 Journal articles In-text referencing Model to follow in a reference list Journal article, three to five authors (print) Note: The use of et al. shown here is the same for both print and electronic journal articles. Vlaanderen, Vermeulen, Heederik, and Kromhout (2008) set out some guidelines … For Vlaanderen et al. (2008), the application of these guidelines is … Note: Give all authors’ names the first time the resource is mentioned in text. For second and subsequent references, give only the first author’s name, followed by et al. Vlaanderen, J., Vermeulen, R., Heederik, D., & Kromhout, H. (2008). Guidelines to evaluate human observational studies for quantitative risk assessment. Environmental Health Perspectives, 116(12), 1700–1705. Note: Give all authors’ names in the reference list. Journal article with six authors Note: The use of et al. shown here is the same for both print and electronic journal articles. According to Dietz et al. (2007, p. 1517), … Note: Give only the first author’s name followed by et al. from the first time the resource is mentioned in text. Dietz, P. M., Williams, S. B., Callaghan, W. M., Bachman, D. J., Whitlock, E. P., & Hornbrook, M. C. (2007). Clinically identified maternal depression before, during, and after pregnancies ending in live births. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164(10), 1515–1520. Retrieved from http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/ 31 Journal articles In-text referencing Model to follow in a reference list Journal article, more than six/seven authors. Note: The use of et al. shown here is the same for both print and electronic journal articles. In research by Iwakiri et al. (2009), it was found that … A quantitative methodology was used … (Iwakiri et al., 2009). Iwakiri, A., Ganmyo, H., Yamamoto, S., Otao, K., Mikasa, M., Kizoe, S., … Oka, A. (2009). Quantitative analysis of fecal sapovirus shedding: Identification of nucleotide substitutions in the capsid protein during prolonged excretion. Archives of Virology, 154(4), 689–693. Note: If there are six/ seven authors, all the names are given in the reference list. If there are eight or more authors, give the names of the first six authors followed by an ellipsis (three dots) and the name of the last author. Journal article, no volume or issue number (print) Growth at all costs is “no longer a viable option” (Sprague & Shameen, 1999, p. 50). Sprague, J., & Shameen, A. (1999, July 31). Boosting growth, courting disasters? Asiaweek, 50–51. Note: If there are no volume or issue numbers, include the date of publication, month or season with the year. Journal article published seasonally (print) The Southern Bell Frog is fighting for survival as water dries up in the lower Murray-Darling Basin wetlands (Beemster, 2008). Beemster, M. (2008, Spring). Saving the Southern Bell Frog. Australian Landcare, 27–29. 32 Magazine or newsletter article (no volume or issue number) (print) “Aerobic” writing is a writing centre strategy designed to provide exercises for students to improve their writing (Chandler-Crisp, 1988). Chandler-Crisp, S. (1988, May). “Aerobic” writing: A writing practice model. Writing Lab Newsletter, pp. 9–11. Journal article, no author (print) Recent theories suggest solar power may be competitive (“Building theories”, 1999). Building theories on sand. (1999). Science, 285, 521. Note: If there is no author, give the title in place of the author. If the title is long, give only the first few words in your in-text reference. Article from a freely available online journal McIntosh (2001) puts forward an argument that … McIntosh, S. (2001). A critical writing pedagogy: Who benefits? Queensland Journal of Educational Research, 17(2), 152– 153. Retrieved from http://www.iier.org.au/qjer/qjer.html Note: Give the Web address of the home page of the journal. Journal article not yet formally published but accepted for publication Wall and Morgan (in press) argue that climate change associated with global warming represents a huge challenge to the next generation. Wall, R., & Morgan, E. (in press). Veterinary parasitology and climate change. Veterinary Parasitology. Note: As the article has not yet been formally published, no date, volume, issue or page numbers can be provided. 33 Journal article from CQUniversity Course Resources Online (CRO) Panksepp, Herman, Vilberg, Bishop, and DeEskinazi (1980) pointed out …. Panksepp, J., Herman, B. H., Vilberg, T., Bishop, P., & DeEskinazi, F. G. (1980). Endogenous opioids and social behavior. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 4, 473–487. Note: This item is only available electronically to CQUniversity staff and students so reference as a print article. Reports Reports In-text referencing Model to follow in a reference list Report (print) According to Kitson, Conroy, Kuluski, Locock, and Lyons (2013), … Kitson et al. (2013) argue that … Note: When there are three, four or five authors, give all authors’ names in your first in-text reference and use just the first author’s name followed by et al. for any subsequent references. Kitson, A., Conroy, T., Kuluski, K., Locock, L., & Lyons, R. (2013). Reclaiming and redefining the fundamentals of care: Nursing’s response to meeting patients’ basic human needs [Research Report No. 2]. Adelaide, South Australia: University of Adelaide. 34 Reports In-text referencing Model to follow in a reference list Report (online) (individual author) Non-formal learning can occur in a variety of settings (Trewin, 2003, p. 16). Trewin, D. (2003). Measuring learning in Australia: A framework for education and training statistics. Retrieved from the Australian Bureau of Statistics website: http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/[email protected]/DetailsPage/42 13.02003?OpenDocument Note: If the author of the report is not the publisher, identify the publisher as part of the retrieval statement in the form: Retrieved from Agency Name website: http://www.xxxxxxxx Report (online) (corporate author) Recent data shows that an eighth of the world’s population suffers from hunger (United Nations, 2013). United Nations. (2013). The Millennium Development Goals report 2013. Retrieved from http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/pdf/report-2013/mdgreport-2013-english.pdf Note: Use minimal capitalisation for the title of a report, but always capitalise proper nouns (as in this example). 35 Conference papers Conference papers In-text referencing Model to follow in a reference list Conference paper in published proceedings (print) Kell (2006, p. 20) contends that “… .” Kell, P. (2006). Equality of opportunity in new times: The politics of learning and the learner in the new world disorder. In Proceedings of 4th International Lifelong Learning Conference: Partners, pathways, and pedagogies (pp. 17–25). Yeppoon, Qld: CQUniversity Australia. Note: If the year the paper was presented differs from the year it was published, give the year of publication. Conference paper published online The interactive classroom is becoming the primary learning and teaching interface in primary schools all over Australia (Willis, 1996). Willis, S. (1996). Interface into interactivity: Technologies and techniques. Paper presented at the Australian Computers in Education Conference. Retrieved from http://www.spirit.com.au/ACE96/papers/canberra.htm 36 Unpublished paper presented at a conference or meeting The problems caused by salinity include … (Smith & Jones, 1999). Smith, J., & Jones, P. (1999, February). Salinity issues facing Australian farmers. Paper presented at the Australian Farmers Federation Conference, Perth, WA. Note: Cite the year and month the paper was presented. University materials University materials In-text referencing Model to follow in a reference list Study Guide (author known) Similarly, Cleary (2009, p. 66) reported that “… .” Cleary, S. (2009). NURS12141—Nursing in a medical environment: Study guide. Rockhampton, Qld: CQUniversity Australia. Study Guide (author unknown) A recent report (CQUniversity, 2009) has suggested that … CQUniversity Australia. (2009). EDCU11021—The arts: Study guide. Rockhampton, Qld: Author. Note: If the author and the publisher are the same, use the word “Author” where the publisher’s name would go. 37 University materials In-text referencing Model to follow in a reference list Text reprinted in a book of selected readings for distance education students (resource materials) In a review of the situation, Mantik and Kang (2005, p. 249) suggested that “… .” Mantik, S., & Kang, D. (2005). Genetics and altered responses. In D. Brown, H. Edwards, S. Mantik, M. M. Heitkemper, & D. D. Dirksen (Eds.), The contemporary midwife (pp. 237–474). Reprinted in CQUniversity Australia, 2009, MDWF29001 The contemporary midwife: Resource materials (Reading 3– 1, pp. 1–39). Rockhampton, Qld: Author. Note: Give full details of the primary source and then make it clear that it has been reprinted for a student resource book. Tutorial/Workshop Handout (unpublished) The importance of aerobic exercise (The respiratory system, 2008) … The respiratory system (2008, March 2). Tutorial handout distributed in the course HMSC11005—Human Anatomy, at CQUniversity Australia, Gladstone, Qld. Lecture notes (unpublished) It is expected that the first teaching day may result in mixed emotions (Thompson, 2008). Thompson, R. (2008, April 2). The first day experience. Lecture notes distributed in the course EDFE11010—Professional Practice III, at CQUniversity Australia, Bundaberg, Qld. 38 University materials In-text referencing Model to follow in a reference list Lecture material – non-print (e.g., whiteboard notes, OHT notes, lecturer’s statements) In a lecture (SCIE11007 Introductory Science) presented at Central Queensland University, Mackay, on April 17, 2001, Dr J. Watson suggested that … This should not be included in the reference list. Document available on Moodle Smith (2005) demonstrates that … Smith, G. (2005). Folk, festivals and the state. In Singing Australian: A history of folk and country music (Chap. 4). Melbourne, Vic: Pluto Press Australia. Retrieved from CQUniversity e-courses, CULT20024 Cultural Production of Popular Music, http://moodle.cqu.edu.au Lecture notes available on Moodle According to Smith (2008) … Smith, J. (2008, January 18). Three sociological theories. Retrieved from CQUniversity e-courses, HIST1013 History of Ideas, http://moodle.cqu.edu.au Message posted to a Moodle discussion group In a post to the course website, Brown (2009) pointed out that… Brown, T. (2009, September 6). Re: Classroom management [Electronic discussion group message]. Retrieved from CQUniversity e-courses, EDED11449 Principles of University Learning, http://moodle.cqu.edu.au 39 University materials In-text referencing Model to follow in a reference list PowerPoint slides available on Moodle Dickinson (2008) sets out the elements of … Dickinson, C. (2008). Contemporary management theory [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from CQUniversity e-courses, MGMT11011 Introduction to Management, http://moodle.cqu.edu.au Screencast To set up a document in APA style, a number of variations must be made to a standard Word file (Peakdavid, 2009). Peakdavid. (2009). APA format citations—sixth (6th) edition [Screencast presentation]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9pbUoNa5tyY&annotation _id=annotation_384875&feature=iv Government & Legislation Government & Legislation In-text referencing Model to follow in the reference list Government publication A recent government study (Australian Bureau of Statistics [ABS], 1999) reported that … Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS). (1999). Regional statistics. (Cat. No. 1313.8.). Canberra, ACT: Author. 40 Government & Legislation In-text referencing Model to follow in the reference list Government report (print) A government report (Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody [RCADC], 1990) found that … . It was further suggested at an investigation that … (RCADC, 1990). Note: Give the common title or acronym in brackets with the first reference. Subsequent references use only the common title/acronym. Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody (RADC). (1990). Report of the inquiry into the death of Ronald Mack, by Commissioner D. J. O’Shea. Canberra, ACT: Australian Government Publishing Service. Government report (online) A draft study of course choices revealed that “There were no significant gender differences in the reasons respondents chose to study engineering” (Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR), 2008, para. 1). Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR). (2008). Views of engineering students— Report of final year university engineering students in Australia [Draft report]. Retrieved from http://www.dest.gov.au/ Note: Instead of a lengthy URL address, if the site has a search function give the URL of the home page. 41 Government & Legislation In-text referencing Model to follow in the reference list Websites from the same author, same year According to Queensland Health (2000a), involuntary assessment … According to Queensland Health (2000b), an involuntary treatment order … According to Queensland Health (2000c), patients’ rights are … Queensland Health. (2000a). Involuntary assessment [Fact sheet no. 2]. Retrieved from http://www.health.qld.gov.au/mha2000/documents/factsheet2. pdf Queensland Health. (2000b). Involuntary treatment [Fact sheet no. 3]. Retrieved from http://www.health.qld.gov.au/mha2000/documents/factsheet3. pdf Queensland Health. (2000c). Patients’ rights [Fact sheet no. 7]. Retrieved from http://www.health.qld.gov.au/mha2000/documents/factsheet7.p df Queensland Syllabus document (print) Queensland Studies Authority (QSA, 2002) is the … According to the Queensland Studies Authority (QSA, 2002, p. 17), “… .” Queensland Studies Authority (QSA). (2002). The arts: Years 1 to 10 syllabus. Brisbane, Qld: Author. 42 Government & Legislation In-text referencing Model to follow in the reference list Queensland Syllabus document (online) Queensland Studies Authority (QSA, 2002) was … Queensland Studies Authority (QSA). (2002). The arts: Years 1 to 10 syllabus. Retrieved from http://www.qsa.gov.au/ Queensland Syllabus document on CDROM Queensland Studies Authority (QSA, 2002) … According to the Queensland Studies Authority (QSA, 2002, p. 11), “ … .” Queensland Studies Authority (QSA). (2002). The arts: Years 1 to 10 syllabus [CD-ROM]. Brisbane, Qld: Author. Education Queensland document with no date (print) Education Queensland (n.d.) … Education Queensland (n.d., p. 11) asserts “… .” Education Queensland. (n.d.). The code of school behaviour: Better behaviour better learning. Brisbane, Qld: Queensland Government. Education Queensland document with no date (online) Education Queensland (n.d.) has published a … Education Queensland. (n.d.). The code of school behaviour: Better behaviour better learning. Retrieved from http://education.qld.gov.au/studentservices/behaviour/index.ht ml 43 Government & Legislation In-text referencing Model to follow in the reference list Standards Australia This complies with AS4458-1997 (Standards Australia, 1997). Standards Australia. (1997). Australian standard: Pressure equipment—manufacture (AS4458–1997). North Sydney, NSW: Standards Australia. Legislation It must be realised that intent must be established before a prosecution can proceed concerning underage drinking (Queensland State Liquor Act 1962, s.12(5)). Queensland State Liquor Act 1962 (Qld). 44 Electronic sources Other electronic sources In-text referencing Model to follow in a reference list Document on the World Wide Web (dated and author or sponsor given) Lamp (2007) noted that … OR Research into socioeconomic status needs further attention (MacArthur & MacArthur, 2008). OR The community levy to fund the service is collected by electricity retailers and suppliers in Queensland (Queensland Ambulance Service [QAS], 2010). Lamp, J. (2007). Citation styles for electronic media. Retrieved from http://lamp.infosys.deakin.edu.au/index.php?page=cite MacArthur, J. D., & MacArthur, C. T. (2008). Research network on socioeconomic status and health. Retrieved from http://www.macses.ucsf.edu/News/NEWS.html Queensland Ambulance Service (QAS). (2010). Community ambulance cover levy. Retrieved from http://www.ambulancecover.qld.gov.au/ Note: 1: Web addresses are not underlined. Note: 2: Retrieved dates are only needed if the content on the Web page is likely to change—for example, if it is updated or archived regularly. 45 Other electronic sources In-text referencing Model to follow in a reference list Document on the World Wide Web (author or sponsor given but not dated) United States Department of Agriculture (n.d.) recommends observing the five food groups diet … OR Adherence to the five food groups… (United States Department of Agriculture, n.d.). United States Department of Agriculture. (n.d.). What’s in this booklet for me? Retrieved from http://www.pueblo.gsa.gov/cic_text/food/foodpyramid/main.htm Document on the World Wide Web (no author/sponsor) As stated in “Citing or referencing electronic sources of information” (2010), … Note: Always check the validity of a site that has no author or sponsor. The use of such sites is discouraged. Citing or referencing electronic sources of information. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.apastyle.org/learn/index.aspx 46 Primary source on the Web Florence Nightingale wrote to Sir Benjamin Brodie to ask him to advise Elizabeth Blackwell on her future career (Nightingale, 1859/2011). Note: Give the year the source was originally published as well as the year it was published on the Web in your in-text reference. Nightingale, F. (2011). Letter to Sir Benjamin Brodie, February 13. Retrieved from http://clendening.kumc.edu/dc/fn/brodie1.html (Original work published 1859) Note: Give the year the document was first published/produced in brackets at the end of the reference. Audio or video podcast Bell and Phillips (2008) explain the science behind… OR In a video podcast, Scott (2007) demonstrates … Bell, T., & Phillips, T. (2008, May 6). A solar flare [Audio file]. Science @ NASA. Retrieved from http://science.nasa.gov/podcast.htm Scott, D. (Producer). (2007, January 5). The community college classroom [Episode 7] [Video file]. Adventures in education. Retrieved from http://www.adveeducation.com Wiki Payments are based on the ability of the worker to find employment in a partial capacity: a worker who has lost an arm can still find work as a proportion of a fully-able person (Kiff, 2009, p. 1). Kiff, J. (2009). Workmen’s compensation insurance. Retrieved January 28, 2007, from http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Psychometric_assessment Note: Use retrieval date as wiki entries can often change or disappear. 47 YouTube iMindmap (2007) sets out the basic principles of mind mapping… iMindMap. (2007, Jan 8). Maximise the power of your brain: Tony Buzan mind mapping [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MlabrWv25qQ Note: If there is no author/sponsor given, use the title of the video in place of the author. Do not use the name of the person who posted the video online as the author, unless they also produced the video. Blog post According to Moore (2009), … Moore, C. (2009, August 8). Why you want to focus on actions, not learning objectives [Web log post]. Retrieved March 5, 2011, from http://blog.cathy-moore.com/2009/08/why-you-want-tofocus-on-actions-not-learning-objectives/ Note: This may not be a permanent source so put in retrieval date. Message posted to a newsgroup, online forum, or discussion group Ho’s (2009) response to the report was vehement. Ho, C. (2009, November 25). Re: The UN report on conditions for Indigenous Australians [Discussion group message]. Retrieved from http://www.indigenoushealth.com.au/discussion/message/65 Note: If the discussion group is on a Moodle course, give the course code and name and the URL of the e-courses website. 48 Computer software Miller (1993) designed a simulation … Miller, M. E. (1993). The Interactive Tester (Version 4) [Computer software]. Westminister, CA: Psytrek Services. Specialised sources Specialised sources In-text referencing Model to follow in a reference list Brochure where the author is also the publisher WesternXposure (2010) promises tourists an exploration of the beautiful coral coast of Western Australia. WesternXposure. (2010). 5 Day Exmouth to Perth Safari WX [Brochure]. Perth, WA: Author. Pamphlet Centrelink (2009) suggested that … Centrelink. (2009). Online services: Your quick access to Centrelink [Pamphlet]. Canberra, ACT: Australian Government. Magazine “Mobile phones were supposed to liberate us” (Legge, 2005, p. 28). Legge, K. (2005, May 28–29). Upwardly mobile. Weekend Australian Magazine, p. 28. 49 Newspaper article with an author Barker (2009) reported that … Barker, I. (2009, February 23). What does the student association do for you? Pipeline, p. 16. Newspaper article available on the Web Brody (2007) canvasses a number of options for … Brody, J. E. (2007, December 11). Mental reserves keep brain agile. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com Note: To avoid non-working URLs, provide the URL of the newspaper’s homepage. Newspaper article available via Library database, e.g., Factiva, Newspaper Source Plus The Queensland Budget outlined … (Ironside, Wardill, & MacDonald, 2012, p. 7). Ironside, R., Wardill, S., & MacDonald, A. (2012, May 25). Budget moves spread widely. Courier Mail, p. 7. Note: Reference as a print article. Daily newspaper article with no author Local doctors have alerted the public to a strain of flu which is causing misery … (“New flu strain”, 2009). New flu strain “resistant to medication”. (2009, March 3). The Morning Bulletin, p. 15. Online newspaper article with no author A report in The Australian (“Babies born”, 1996) revealed that the economic situation was responsible for the … Babies born and not raised. (1996, September 1). The Australian. Retrieved from http://www.australian.aust.com/australian/cgibin/news 50 DVD and Video recordings Similarly, in An inconvenient truth (Bender, David, & Guggenheim, 2006), … Bender, L., & David, L. (Producers), & Guggenheim, D. (Director). (2006). An inconvenient truth [DVD recording]. Shailia Park, NSW: Paramount Home Entertainment. Note: Substitute [Video recording] when appropriate. Television series The Good Wife series is an American legal drama (King & King, 2009). King, R., & King, M. (Producers). (2009). The good wife [Television series]. New York, NY: CBS Entertainment. Television broadcast U.S. mid-term elections were discussed in a special segment on Fox News Sunday, November 1 (Wallace, 2010). Wallace, C. (Producer). (2010, November 1). U.S. mid-term elections. Fox News Sunday [Television broadcast]. New York, NY: Fox Entertainment Group. Television advertisement Cadbury (2010) has launched an advertisement for its new product Bliss as being one for the ladies. Cadbury. (2010). Cadbury Bliss [Television advertisement]. London, UK: Fallon. 51 Image from an Electronic source The painting of The equatorial jungle, by Rousseau (1909) in the National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC is much admired. Rousseau, H. (Artist). (1909). The equatorial jungle [Painting]. National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://www.nga.gov/fcgi-bin/tinfo_f?object=46688 Image in a printed source The magic of images in the work of Henri Rousseau are reproduced in this collection (Morris & Green, 2006). Rousseau, H. (Artist). (2006). The ship in the storm [Painting]. Muséé de l’Orangerie, Paris. In F. Morris & C. Green (Eds.), Henri Rousseau: Jungles in Paris. New York, NY: Abrams. (Original work created 1896) Photograph with author Gilbert’s photo (2010) pictures the new look that California is trying to pitch to young tourists. Gilbert, A. (Photographer). (2010). California’s new tourism ad campaign [Photograph]. Retrieved from http://article.wn.com/view/2010/10/08/Californias_new_touris m_ad_campaign_features_Kim_Kardashian_/ Photograph with no author This photo captures all the mystery of an eastern woman (Japanese Geisha, 2006). Japanese Geisha [Photograph]. (2006). Retrieved from http://www.bergoiata.org/fe/divers28/Japanese_Geisha.j pg 52 Radio interview Norris (1997) described the melting of the ice packs in the Antarctic … Norris, D. (1997, January 6). The greenhouse report [Radio broadcast]. ABC Radio National. Note: You need to have the transcript if you wish to quote from this broadcast. Radio transcript (online) According to Smith (1998), the healing properties of lavender … Smith, H. (1998). Medicine in Chaucer’s time. Ockham’s razor. ABC Radio National Transcripts. Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/rn/science/ockham/or110898.htm Film/Movie The realistic portrayal of relationships was challenged … (Wright, Fellner, Webster, & Bevan 2005). Wright, J. (Director), & Fellner, E., Webster, P., & Bevan, T. (Producers). (2005). Pride and prejudice [Motion picture]. Universal City, CA: Focus Features. Music recording – CD The song Someone saved my life tonight (Taupin, 1975, track 9) was a hit for Elton John. Taupin, B. (1975). Someone saved my life tonight [Recorded by Elton John]. On Captain fantastic and the brown dirt cowboy [CD]. London. UK: Big Pig Music. 53 Music recording – MP3 The song Someone saved my life tonight (Taupin, 1975/2009) was a hit for Elton John. Note: If the date of digitisation was different from the recording date, give both dates in the in-text reference. Taupin, B. (2009). Someone saved my life tonight [Recorded by Elton John]. [MP3]. (1975). Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/itunes Note: If the date of digitisation was different from the recording date, give the date the song was originally recorded in round brackets after the publication information. Facebook August 24, 2007 represented the one year anniversary of Pluto’s demotion (When I was your age … , 2009). When I was your age, Pluto was a planet. (2009). In Facebook [Group page]. Retrieved from http://www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=2207893888 Twitter President Obama announced the launch of the American Graduation Initiative (BarackObama, 2009a). BarackObama. (2009, July 15). Launched American graduation initiative to help additional 5 mill. Americans graduate college by 2020: http://bit.ly/gcTX7 [Twitter post]. Retrieved from http://twitter.com/BarackObama/status/2651151366 Audio cassette In Plum Blossom (1990), it is claimed that entertainers live a very complex life. Plum blossom. (1990). [Cassette Recording No. WS8871]. Hakodate, Japan: White Swan Audio and Video Publishing House. 54 Encyclopædia with editor (print) One definition of jazz (Sadie, 1980) positions it as … Sadie, S. (Ed.). (1980). The new Grove encyclopædia of music and musicians (6th ed., Vols. 1–20). London, UK: Macmillan. Encyclopaedia entry with author (print) According to Bergmann (1997), the newly categorised disorders include Attention Deficit Disorder. Bergmann, I. (1997). Attention deficit disorder. In The new Encyclopedia Britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501–508). Chicago, IL: Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopaedia entry with author (online) The art of advertising such a product is to impress consumers with … (Bailey & Lane, n.d.). Bailey, R., & Lane, M. (n.d.). Campbell Soup Company. In Encyclopedia of major marketing campaigns. Retrieved from http://findgalegroup.com Online encyclopaedia or dictionary article available via a Library database, e.g., Oxford Reference Online, Credo Reference A pressure sore is “an ulcerated area of skin caused by continuous pressure on part of the body” (“Pressure sore”, 2010, para. 1). “Pressure sore.” (2010). In Concise medical dictionary. Retrieved from Oxford Reference Online. 55 Encyclopaedia entry, no author (online) The climate and topography are formidable obstacles to any invader (“Afghanistan”, 2007). Afghanistan. (2007). In J. Maher (Ed.), Europa world plus. Retrieved from http://www.europaworld.com Encyclopædia entry on CD-ROM (with an author) Harrison (1996) suggests that … Harrison, A. (1996). Global warming. Microsoft Encarta 96 encyclopædia [CD-ROM]. Note: Treat sections within the CD-ROM like chapters in a book. Encyclopædia entry on CD-ROM (no author) As noted in “Acid Rain” (1996), … Acid rain. (1996). Microsoft Encarta 96 encyclopædia [CD-ROM]. Note: Treat sections within the CD-ROM like chapters in an edited book. Atlas (with an editor) The position of the new city is to be in south east Queensland (Eales, 2003, Map 34). Eales, S. (Ed.). (2003). The Jacaranda atlas (3rd ed.). Brisbane, Qld: John Wiley & Sons. Dictionary The Australian Concise Oxford Dictionary (1999, p. 1425) defines a throw-away society as one which … The Australian concise Oxford dictionary (3rd ed.). (1999). Melbourne, Vic: Melbourne University Press. Dictionary (online) The Oxford Dictionaries define inclusion as . . . (“Inclusion”, 2012, p. 1). Inclusion. (2012). In Oxford dictionaries. Retrieved from http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/inclusion?q=inclusion 56 The Bible These particular lines (Psalms 23: 6–8) refer the reader to … Note: References to the Bible and other classical works are not usually included in a reference list because they can be readily sourced. Personal Communications In a telephone conversation on 17 July, 1999, Petty … OR Evidence given (H. Petty, personal communication, July 17, 1999) … OR In an email communication on 10 June, 1995, Wren … Note: Personal communications such as conversations, letters and personal email messages, are not usually included in a reference list because they are classed as unrecoverable data (unless specifically requested by your lecturer). Radio news broadcast The discovery was first announced on 4BU News (February 14, 2000). Note: News broadcasts are not usually included in a reference list. Thesis (unpublished) Herbert-Cheshire (1997) argues that … Herbert-Cheshire, L. (1997). Living by the sea (Unpublished honours thesis). Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, Qld. References American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. Arnold, J., Silvester, J., Patterson, F., Robertson, I., Cooper C. L., & Burnes, B. (2005). Work psychology: Understanding human behavior in the workplace (4th ed.). Harlow, London, UK: Pearson Education. Nursing & Midwifery Board of Australia (NMBA). (2008a). Code of ethics for nurses in Australia. Retrieved from http://www.nursingmidwiferyboard.gov.au/CodesGuidelines-Statements/Codes-Guidelines.aspx Nursing & Midwifery Board of Australia (NMBA). (2008b). Code of professional conduct for nurses in Australia. Retrieved from http://www.nursingmidwiferyboard.gov.au/Codes-Guidelines-Statements/CodesGuidelines.aspx Beemster, M. (2008, Spring). Saving the Southern Bell Frog. Australian Landcare, 27–29. CQUniversity Academic Board. (2009). Plagiarism. Retrieved from http://handbook.cqu.edu.au/Handbook/terminology.jsp?id=632 Danaher, P. (Ed.). (1998). Beyond the Ferris wheel. Rockhampton, Qld: CQU Press. Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations. (2008). Views of engineering students—Report of final year university engineering students in Australia [Draft report]. Retrieved from: http://www.dest.gov.au/sectors/higher_education/publications_resources/profiles/vie ws_engineering_students.htm Kassin, S. (2004). Psychology (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education. 58 Lamp, J. (2007). Citation styles for electronic media. Retrieved from http://lamp.infosys.deakin.edu.au/index.php?page=cite Mann, S. (2010, July 16). After three months, oil gusher plugged, says BP. The Age. Retrieved from http://www.theage.com.au/environment/conservation/after-threemonths-oil-gusher-plugged-says-bp-20100716-10cyn.html?autostart=1 Nightingale, F. (1859/2011). Letter to Sir Benjamin Brodie, February 13. Retrieved from http://clendening.kumc.edu/dc/fn/brodie1.html Nightingale, F. (1858). Notes on nursing: What it is, and what it is not. London, UK: Harrison and Sons. Queensland Studies Authority (QSA). (2002). The arts: Years 1 to 10 syllabus [CD-ROM]. Brisbane, Qld: Author. Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody (RCADC). (1990). Report of the inquiry into the death of Ronald Mack, by Commissioner D. J. O’Shea. Canberra, ACT: Australian Government Publishing Service. Stultz, J. (2006). Integrating exposure therapy and analytic therapy in trauma treatment. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 76(4), 482–488. doi:10.1037/0002- 9432.76.4.482 Taines, C. (2008). A practical guide to writing for psychology. Sydney, NSW: McGraw Hill. Turner, J. C. (2006a). Mind in the organisation environment. In P. A. M. Van Lange (Ed.), Bridging social psychology: Benefits of transdisciplinary approaches (pp. 139–14). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Turner, J. C. (2006b). Tyranny, freedom and social structure. British Journal of Social Psychology, 45, 41–46. Wall, R., & Morgan, E. (in press). Veterinary parasitology and climate change. Veterinary Parasitology. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com 59 Wyn, J., & White, R. (2008). Youth and society (2nd ed.). Sydney, NSW: Oxford University Press. 60 Appendix A—Table format Note: This format is for those using APA formatting style in addition to APA referencing. Usually, this applies only to students studying psychology. If in doubt, check with your lecturer. Table A1 Student Evaluation of Course (SEC) Data – 2007–2010 2007 2008 2009 2010 Respondent rate 17% (23) 15% (37) 15% (24) 14% (24) 22% (29) 25% (47) 54% (46) 35% (58) Student evaluations of course score 5.1 / 7 4.1 / 7 5.1 / 7 4.7 / 7 5.3 / 7 5.6 / 7 6 / 7 (High RIB ranking) 6 / 7 (High RIB ranking) Campus 1 Campus 2 Campus 1 Campus 2 Campus 1 Campus 2 Campus 1 Campus 2 1 = Unacceptable through to 7 = Excellent. Note: Tables 1. A table formed from your own information will not need a source. 2. A table taken from the work of another author needs to be sourced. The caption goes above the table—on the next line use italics for the title of the table—have a look. If the table is in the text then it is Table 1. If it is in an appendix then it takes the appendix letter, Table A1. The source is included as a Note: below the table. Example: From a book—full details of the source go underneath the table using the following format. Note: Title of Book (p. xx), by A. T. Author and T. P. Author, year, Place of Publication: Publisher. Table 1 Examples of medical problems And underneath the table: Note: Preterm birth: Causes, consequences and prevention (p. 149), by R. E. Behrman and A. S. Butler (Eds.), 2007. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. Example: From a journal article—full details of the source go underneath the table using the following format. Table 2 Model of hope relationships 61 And underneath the table: Note: Hope and social support as resilience factors against psychological distress of mothers who care for children with chronic physical conditions, by T. V. Horton and J. L. Wallander, 2001, Rehabilitation Psychology, 46, p. 387. 62 Appendix B—Figure format Peer Review System Distribution for marking Weekly Submission Peer Review System Peer Review System Distribution for Scores Weekly Assessment Submission of Journals Weekly Assessment Tasks Plagiarism Checking Weekly Reading Material in PFD Format Course Figure B1. An overview of the elements of the course Note: Figures 1. If the figure is done from your own information then no source is required. 2. If you get the information from another source then you must source the figure. The caption goes beneath the image with the source credited at the end of the caption (Publication Manual, pp. 158–167). Italicise the word Figure and the number: Figure 1. If the figure is in an appendix then it takes the appendix letter and the number: Figure B1. Example from a journal article: Figure 1. Name of the image. From Title of Article, by A. A. Author, year, Title of Journal, volume, p. Figure 1. Model of hypothesized relationships. From Hope and social support as resilience factors against psychological distress of mothers who care for children with chronic physical conditions, by T. V. Horton and J. L. Wallander, 2001, Rehabilitation Psychology, 46, p. 386. Example from a book: Figure 2. Name of image. From Title of Book (p. xx), by A. Author, year, Place of Publication: Publisher. Figure 2. Examples of maternal medical problems. Adapted from Preterm birth: Causes, consequences, and prevention (p. 149), by R. E. Behrman and A. S. Butler (Eds.), 2007, Washington, DC: National Academies Press. 63 Index & & · 14 A alphabetical · 18 ampersand · 14 and · 14 APA website · 9 Appendices · 12 Article in a journal, no volume or issue number (print) · 31 Atlas · 55 Audio cassette · 53 Australian publications · 8 Author prominent · 5 author-date system · 5 B bibliography · 9 Blog post · 47 Book Chapter available from CQUniversity Course Resources Online · 24 Book review · 23 Brochure · 48 C capitalisation · 10 CD · 52 CD-ROM · 42 Chapter in an e-book from CQUniversity ACQUIRE · 27 Chapter in an edited e-book · 26 Chapter in edited work · 21 chronologically · 17 citing · 6 compiled by the editor · 20 Compiled package unpublished · 21 Compiled textbook · 21 Computer software · 48 Conference paper – online · 35 conference paper – print · 35 Conference paper – unpublished · 36 Course Resources Online · 33 CQUni Library Discover It · 11 CQUniversity · 33 CQUniversity Course Resources Online · 33 CQUniversity’s Plagiarism Procedures · 6 D Daily newspaper · 49 Dictionary · 55 Dictionary (online) · 55 different authors with the same surname · 18 64 differentiate between works in the same year · 18 Digital Object Identifier · 10 Direct quotations · 8 Discover it! · 28 DOI · 10 DOI number · 28 Double quotation marks · 6 DVD · 50 EE-book · 25, 27 Edited work · 20 Edition · 19 Education Queensland document with no date (online) · 42 Education Queensland documents · 42 eight or more authors · 31 Electronic book chapter with DOI · 26 electronic sources · 5 Electronic version of a republished book · 26 Electronic -only book · 25 Encyclopædia · 54 Encyclopædia entry on CD -ROM (no author) · 55 Encyclopædia entry on CD -ROM (with an author) · 55 Encyclopaedia entry with author (online) · 54 Encyclopaedia entry, no author (online) · 55 Encyclopedia entry with author (print) · 54 et al. · 15, 16, 30, 31 expulsion · 6 F Facebook · 53 Figures · 62 Film/Movie · 52 formatting your reference list · 9 full stop · 14 G Government publication · 39 Government report · 40 H Handbook · 19 headers · 12 headings · 8 I Image from an Electronic source · 51 Image in a printed source · 51 in press · 32 Information prominent · 6 in -text referencing · 5 issue · 10 Issue numbers · 11 italics · 6 65 J JBI COnNECT+, MIMS Online, and ERIC · 29 journal · 10 Journal – online · 32 Journal article (in print) · 10 Journal article available via Discover It! · 28 Journal article from CQUniversity Course Resources Online · 33 Journal article not yet formally published · 32 journal article with a DOI · 10 Journal article with no DOI (electronic) from a database, CRO or a pdf file · 11 Journal article with six authors. · 30 Journal article without a DOI · 28 Journal article, more than six/seven authors. · 31 Journal article, no author (print) · 32 Journal article, one or two authors (print) · 29 Journal article, three to five authors (print) · 30 journal published seasonally · 31 K Kindle · 25 L Lecture material – non-print · 38 Lecture notes · 37 Lecture notes available on Moodle/e-courses · 38 Legislation · 43 M Magazine · 48 Magazine or newsletter article (no volume or issue number) (print) · 32 MIMS · 19 minimal capitalisation · 7 Moodle discussion group · 38 Moodle/e-courses · 38 More than seven authors · 16 more than six authors (or editors) · 16 MP3 · 53 multiple references · 19 Multiple works · 17, 18 multivolume work · 21 N n.d. · 22 newsletter · 11 Newspaper article · 49 Newspaper article available on the Web · 49 Newspaper article available via Library database, e.g., Factiva, Newspaper Source Plus · 49 no author’s name · 20 No author’s name and no sponsoring body · 20 No date can be established · 22 no page numbers · 8 number examples · 12 number of the paragraph · 8 numbers · 12 66 O oldest reference first · 17 One author · 14 Online encyclopaedia article available via a Library database, e.g., Oxford Reference Online, Credo Reference · 54 online forum · 47 Online newspaper article with no author · 49 P page numbers · 5, 6, 8 Pamphlet · 48 paragraph numbers · 8 Paraphrase · 6 peer reviewed · 7 Personal Communication · 56 Photograph with author · 51 Photograph with no author · 51 Plagiarism · 6 PMID number · 28 podcas · 46 PowerPoint slides available on Moodle/e-courses · 39 previous assessment tasks · 12 primary reference · 23 primary source · 23 Primary source · 18, 46 Q Queensland Syllabus document [hard copy] · 41 Queensland Syllabus Documents · 42 Quotations of 40 or more words · 7 R Radio Interview · 52 Radio News broadcast · 56 Radio transcript · 52 reference · 5 reference list · 5, 9, 18 referencing · 5, 6 Report (online) (corporate author) · 34 Report (online) (individual author) · 34 Report (print) · 33 Resource materials · 37 S Screencast · 39 Second or later edition · 19 secondary reference · 23, 24 series · 22 Several sources are cited at the same time · 19 sic · 8 single quote marks · 7 six authors (or editors), · 16 six or seven authors · 31 Six or seven authors · 16 sponsoring body · 20 sponsoring organisation · 20 67 Standards · 43 Student Misconduct and Plagiarism policy · 6 Study Guide · 36 summarise · 5 T Television advertisement · 50 Television broadcast · 50 Television series · 50 The Basics of APA Style · 9 The Bible · 56 The date can be established but only approximately · 22 Thesis · 56 Three authors to five authors · 15 translation · 22 Twitter · 53 Two authors · 14 two primary reference · 24 U Unpublished materials · 12 URL references · 11 US publications · 8 Use figures · 12 W Websites from the same author same year · 41 Wiki · 46 with · 17 Workshop Handout · 37 World Wide Web · 44, 45 World Wide Web (no author/sponsor) · 45 Y YouTube · 6, 47

WRITING STYLE
GUIDELINE
BE WHAT YOU WANT TO BE
cqu.edu.au   Effective Date: Pending approval
Date of Next Review: 31 January 2015
Administrator: Marketing Directorate
Related Documents: CQUniversity Australia Brand Guideline;
Social Media Policy; Marketing and Recruitment Policy
Approval and Review Details
Approval Authority Vice-Chancellor and President (or delegate)
Advisory Committee to Approval Authority Vice-Chancellor’s Advisory Committee
Administrator Director, Marketing
Next Review Date 08/07/2014
Approval and Amendment History Details
Original Approval Authority and Date Vice-Chancellor and President 20/02/1995
Amendment Authority and Date Vice-Chancellor and President 09/05/2011; Vice-Chancellor and President 08/07/2014
Effective Date: 11 August 2014. Once PRINTED, this is an UNCONTROLLED DOCUMENT. Refer to Policy Portal for latest version. CQUniversity CRICOS Provider Code: 00219C 2
CQUNIVERSITY WRITING STYLE GUIDELINE
INTRODUCTION
AND PURPOSE
Consistency is one of the keys to good copywriting. It refl ects
well on our brand and makes a positive statement about the
standards we set. This guide is designed to help us maintain
consistency across all corporate publications (print and digital),
advertising and online and social media platforms.
Anyone involved in the development of CQUniversity
communications should read and familiarise themselves with
this guide, and refer back to it as often as necessary.
It should be noted that this guide is only meant to provide a
summary of the way we present the written word in corporate
publications (print and digital), advertising and online and social
media platforms. For a more comprehensive resource, please
consult the:
» Australia Government Publishing Service Style Manual
» Macquarie Dictionary and Thesaurus (online version
available at www.macquariedictionary.com.au).
This guide is published by the Marketing Directorate and
provides guidance for writing promotional and general
communications, not academic writing. Any additions or
feedback can be submitted by contacting
[email protected]
CONTENTS
3 Copywriting Checklist
3 Spelling and Punctuation
6 Abbreviations and Contractions
7 People and Places
9 Capitalisation
9 Numbers
10 Disclaimers and Notes
11 University Terminology
16 Writing for Social Media
17 CQUniversity Overviews
18 We’re Here to Help
Effective Date: 11 August 2014. Once PRINTED, this is an UNCONTROLLED DOCUMENT. Refer to Policy Portal for latest version. CQUniversity CRICOS Provider Code: 00219C 3
CQUNIVERSITY WRITING STYLE GUIDELINE
COPYWRITING
CHECKLIST
Consistency is only half the challenge. To write in a way that
is engaging and refl ects well on the CQUniversity brand, you
should also keep this seven-step copywriting checklist in mind.
ü Plan ahead
Think about what you want to say and create a draft
structure where appropriate. Ensure your key messages
are in the opening paragraphs, not buried in the middle.
ü Apply common sense
Stick to the basics, and keep your copywriting clear,
concise and direct. Don’t use 10 words when two will do,
and avoid jargon and acronyms that aren’t explained.
ü Uphold our reputation
Remember you are the voice of a highly regarded
teaching organisation. The tone of your writing should
always be responsible and professional – but not overly
stiff or formal.
ü Observe our brand values
At all times, your writing should complement – not
contradict – the CQUniversity brand values:
Engagement. Leadership. ‘Can-do’ approach. Openness.
Inclusiveness.
ü Consider your audience
Put yourself in the shoes of the person reading your
publication and write in a way that is informative but not
chatty, friendly but not matey and instructive but not
overbearing.
ü Use the fi rst person
Try to use ‘I’, ‘we’ and ‘you’ whenever you can. Writing in
the fi rst person helps to make our communications more
engaging and inclusive. Just remember to make it clear
who ‘we’ is. You can do this by mentioning CQUniversity
in your fi rst reference, and switching to ‘we’ after that.
For instance:
CQUniversity offers you a wide range of program
options. We’ll be happy to help you fi nd one that’s right
for you.
ü And fi nally… seek a second opinion
Don’t be afraid to ask someone to read over your
work and apply the ‘fresh eyes’ test. If you don’t want
someone else reading your work – there’s usually a good
reason!
SPELLING AND
PUNCTUATION
SPELLING
We always use Australian spelling, so it’s a good idea to keep
a copy of the Macquarie Dictionary and Macquarie Thesaurus
bookmarked or close by. These are just a few of the more
commonly misspelt words to keep in mind:
» capitalise not capitalize
» centre not center
» Chancellery not Chancellory
» colour not color
» enquiry not inquiry
» honour not honor
» organisation not organization
» percent not per cent (note percent should be spelt in full
except in numeric tables where % is acceptable)
» program not programme
» specialisation not specialization.
TRICKY WORDS
Some words and phrases cause confusion because they
sound so similar to one another. These are just a few of the
ones to watch out for:
Its vs It’s
» Its demonstrates ownership or possession. For instance:
The dog licked its paw.
» It’s is used when you want to show a contracted version of
‘it is’ or ‘it has’. For instance:
It’s the dog’s paw.
Effect vs affect
» Use ‘effect’ when you’re talking about the result or
consequence of an action. For instance:
My English degree had a positive effect on my career.
» Use ‘affect’ when you are talking about the way an action
infl uences a situation. For instance:
Failing English will affect my chance of career success in
the future.
Ensure vs insure
» Use ‘ensure’ in place of ‘make sure.’ For instance:
The start time was brought forward to ensure more people
could attend.
» Use ‘insure’ in a commercial sense to refer to an insurance
policy or arrangement. For instance:
The policy will insure us against accident, fi re and theft.
Effective Date: 11 August 2014. Once PRINTED, this is an UNCONTROLLED DOCUMENT. Refer to Policy Portal for latest version. CQUniversity CRICOS Provider Code: 00219C 4
CQUNIVERSITY WRITING STYLE GUIDELINE
SPELLING CONTINUED
Principal vs principle
» Use ‘principal’ when you’re talking about the most
important thing or the person in charge. For instance:
My principal reason for studying was to enhance my career
prospects.
» You can also use it to refer to the ‘principal’ sum of money,
meaning an initial sum.
» Use ‘principle’ in the context of a rule or basis for conduct.
For instance:
I won’t compromise my principles just to make money.
Practise vs practice
» In Australian English, use ‘practise’ as a verb. For instance:
I need to practise my French if I’m going to pass this
program.
After I graduate, I can practise as a podiatrist.
» Use ‘practice’ as a noun. For instance:
I am out of practice at examinations.
In practice, this is not a viable solution.
Adviser vs advisor
» In Australian English, use ‘adviser’ as a noun. For instance:
The career adviser helps Year 10 students select senior
subjects.
» The variant ‘advisor’ is commonly used, but considered
incorrect by some and is probably infl uenced by ‘advisory’
which is an adjective.
Compliment vs complement
» In Australian English, ‘compliment’ is a noun, meaning an
expression of praise. For instance:
I must remember to compliment the team on their
excellent work.
» ‘Complement’ is a noun, meaning to complete or make
perfect. For instance:
We will produce a fl yer to complement our campaign
activities.
PUNCTUATION
Ampersand (&) and commercial at (@)
We rarely use ampersands or commercial at in written
communications, preferring to spell out the words ‘and’ and
‘at’ in full. These symbols have been used in the past to
make copy and titles more “edgy”, however these days, this
approach is outdated. Remember, symbols mean different
things in other languages, so it’s best to spell out words in full
wherever possible. The only exception is if we’re quoting a
third party name in our text – like Fogg & Co or [email protected]
Apostrophes
Apostrophes are used primarily to show possession. The
apostrophe goes either before the ‘s’ or after it, depending on
whether the noun is singular or plural. For instance:
The University’s main campus (singular)
The students’ favourite lecturer (plural).
Apostrophes can also be used in some common, everyday
contractions – like hasn’t, didn’t, wouldn’t and you’re. In each
instance, the apostrophe is used instead of the letter ‘o’ or ‘a’.
Names that fi nish with the letter ‘s’ that require ownership
need only add the apostrophe after the name. e.g. John
Jones’ book vs John Smith’s book.
It’s a common mistake, but plurals don’t need apostrophes.
So whether you’re talking about courses, DVDs or the 1980s,
always leave the apostrophe out.
Bulleted lists
Bulleted lists adopt different rules in different contexts. Here
are guidelines for four of the most common instances.
Each bullet point must take the form of either a full sentence
or a list. Structure must be the same for the whole set of
bullet points.
1. If the list is a continuation of a sentence, each bullet begins
with a lower case letter. A full stop is then added after the
last bullet, bringing the series to a close. For example:
Assistance is available in several forms:
» monetary assistance
» equipment or environmental modifi cations
» advisory services.
2. If all the bullet points are complete sentences, each one
should start with a capital letter. For example:
Your statement should include the following information:
» The chosen teaching focus, primary (Years 1 to 6) or
secondary (Years 7 to 12), and why you have chosen it.
» The reasons for choosing teaching as a career, as well as
listing any previous teaching experience or lead learning
in the workplace.
3. Where the bulleted list provides options for readers to
choose between, it’s okay to use a comma and an ‘or’ to
highlight this choice. For instance:
Consideration may also be given on an individual basis to
applicants with:
» professional occupational, health and safety (OHS) (nondegree)
qualifi cations or equivalent with at least fi ve
years’ work experience, or
» other relevant qualifi cations, who are working towards
professional OHS career development.
The same rules apply to bulleted lists of mandatory
requirements using the word ‘and’. For instance:
Entry requirements include:
» some basic understanding of French
» a pass in English, and
» some work experience.
4. If there’s no introductory sentence before a list of bullets,
no punctuation is required. For instance:
OTHER PROGRAMS OF INTEREST
» Graduate Diploma of Occupational Health and Safety
» Master of Safety Science (Specialisation)
Effective Date: 11 August 2014. Once PRINTED, this is an UNCONTROLLED DOCUMENT. Refer to Policy Portal for latest version. CQUniversity CRICOS Provider Code: 00219C 5
CQUNIVERSITY WRITING STYLE GUIDELINE
PUNCTUATION CONTINUED
Ellipses ( … )
Ellipses can be a useful way of highlighting missing words in a
quote you’re using. Just remember to use them sparingly and
to put spaces both before and after the three full stops. For
instance:
The new system will simplify current tax arrangements … and
will contain some compensatory measures.
Exclamation points (!)
There won’t be many instances when exclamation points
appear in CQUniversity copy – and almost never in
formal or offi cial documents. If you use them in internal
communications, use them sparingly and only ever one at
a time. Generally, if you have made your point clearly, an
exclamation point won’t be necessary.
Hyphenation
Hyphen use varies from country to country. As a general
guide, Australian spelling tends not to overuse them, but it’s
best to consult your Macquarie Dictionary if in doubt. Some of
the common words we do hyphenate include:
» day-to-day
» face-to-face
» full-time and part-time
» in-depth
» mid-year
» on-campus
» re-enrol
» state-of-the-art
» Vice-Chancellor.
Keep in mind that hyphens are also used in ‘compound
adjectives’. (When two words are joined together to describe
a third word.) For instance:
A hyphen is used in ‘the fi eld-work component of this course’
but not in ‘the course includes fi eld work’
In most cases, we also use a hyphen when we shorten
‘electronic’ to e- such as in e-commerce or e-book.
Note: The exception to this is ‘email’ which is spelt without
the e- prefi x in the Macquarie Dictionary.
Some of the common words we don’t hyphenate include:
» coordinate
» fi rst year
» lifelong
» online
» readmission
» videoconference
» work integrated learning
» work ready
» childcare
» multidisciplinary
Parentheses ( )
We often use parentheses (brackets) in our copy to enclose
defi nitions, or to add comments, clarifi cations or other
information.
There are some important rules to remember when using
parentheses including:
» If an entire sentence appears in parentheses, remember
to put your fi nal punctuation mark inside the closing
parenthesis.
» If a sentence ends after a parentheses used to provide
defi nition to the main sentence the fi nal punctuation mark
will sit outside the closing parenthesis.
» A comma will only follow the closed parenthesis if a
comma would have been used in the same place had there
been no parentheses.
» Don’t be tempted to use one set of parentheses within
another. You can generally use en-dashes instead.
The examples below will show you how to use them
correctly:
» The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission
(ACCC) will investigate the matter.
» The program is attended mostly by females, the majority of
whom work part-time. (See fi gure 7.4).
» Professor Martin was a leading exponent of chiropractic
medicine. (For a brief discussion of his work, see Appendix 11.)
» Professor Martin – on his expedition to Western Australia
(the Pilbara region) – found no evidence of the species.
Quotation marks
If we’re using quotation marks (or inverted commas) to show
direct speech or quoted work, we use single quotation marks
‘like this’ – not double quotation marks “like this”.
If a punctuation mark is part of the quote, it belongs inside the
quotation marks. For instance:
‘Did you attend the lecture yesterday?’, Simon asked.
If there is no punctuation in the quote itself, the fi nal
punctuation mark sits outside the quotation marks. For
instance:
‘It can be a challenging exercise for students’, I explained,
‘because of the steep learning curve’.
Quotation marks are also commonly used to highlight the
names of lectures, essays or articles. For instance:
You are advised to attend the lecture ‘A Vision for Queensland
Agriculture’.
Single spacing
Double spacing after a full stop is no longer required now
that word processing is completed on computers. Word
processing programs automatically add an appropriate sized
space so you only need to use a single space at the end of a
sentence.
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CQUNIVERSITY WRITING STYLE GUIDELINE
PUNCTUATION CONTINUED
Web addresses
When we include a URL (or web address) in text, we have to
consider how it will be used. If it appears in a digital context
(or an interactive PDF), you may want it to automatically
hyperlink – which will usually mean adding a ‘www’. When
used in a paragraph, we need to add a full stop after a web
address if it occurs at the end of a sentence.
When writing a URL we use bold font. If the URL is at the end
of a sentence the URL is bold and the following full stop is not
bold.
Where it appears in print (that won’t be re-purposed in a digital
format) you should drop the ‘www’ (as well as the ‘http://’) in
most circumstances. For instance:
Please visit cqu.edu.au for further details.
When we are talking to an international audience, we always
add the ‘www’ prefi x to ensure that international browsers
can locate the site. In some instances for specifi c international
audiences the ‘http://’ prefi x should also be included.
For any audience, if you need to refer people to a web address
that doesn’t begin with ‘www’, it’s a good idea to use the
‘http://’ prefi x to make it clear to readers that this is a web
address.
ABBREVIATIONS
AND
CONTRACTIONS
Abbreviations
As a rule, we keep abbreviations clean and simple and avoid
putting full stops in-between letters. As you will see from
the list of common abbreviations below, there are some
exceptions:
» am
» e.g.
» etc.
» ext. (extension)
» i.e.
» Mr
» PhD
» vs
A lot of the time, we use shortened versions when we refer to
our programs. The following guidelines should be followed for
consistency:
» Cert (Certifi cate) (Abreviates to: CertI, CertII,
CertIII, CertIV)
» Dip (Diploma)
» AdvDip (Advanced Diploma)
» AssocDeg (Associate Degree)
» B (Bachelor)
» GradCert (Graduate Certifi cate)
» GradDip (Graduate Diploma)
» M (Master)
» D (Doctor)
» PhD (Doctor of Philosophy)
Acronyms
Acronyms are abbreviations formed from the initial letters of
other words – such as TAFE or NASA. When we use them
in our communications, we generally use capitals without
full stops, and we write them out in full fi rst. After the fi rst
mention, the acronym can be used on its own. For example:
Skills for Tertiary Education Preparatory Studies (STEPS) is a
pre-university program. STEPS is free of tuition fees.
There are a few exceptions to this rule, where common usage
is to use lower case letters. For instance, when we use ‘tba’ in
place of ‘to be arranged’.
CQUniversity
When we talk about CQUniversity, we should wherever
possible spell it out in full eg. CQUniversity Australia.
If you refer to CQUniversity more than once, you should use
CQUniversity Australia in the fi rst instance (where plausible),
followed by the shortened name CQUniversity thereafter.
When referring to ‘the University’ ensure you capitalise
University. For example:
CQUniversity Australia offers a range of degrees in the fi eld
of health and medical sciences. The University is committed
to providing hands-on practical experiences for our students.
CQUniversity strives to build strong relationships with clinical
partners to ensure this is a rich clinical placement experience
for our students.
In some informal cases, this can be abbreviated to CQUni
(preferred) or CQU. For marketing communications, the
preference is always to shorten to CQUni. CQU is used
more prevalently in corporate materials and to reference the
acronym for our legislative name formalised in the Central
Queensland University Act.
Days and months
Days and months are usually written in full, unless space is
an issue (in which case we may bend the rules). Ideally, we
would use:
‘Monday to Friday’, not ‘Mon to Fri’
‘January’, not ‘Jan’.
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CQUNIVERSITY WRITING STYLE GUIDELINE
PEOPLE AND PLACES
CQUniversity locations
When describing CQUniversity locations, it’s important we refer to our locations consistently to avoid confusion. The following
names, abbreviations, street addresses and types have been approved and describe CQUniversity locations.
Location name
(full version)
Other acceptable name
format*
Abbreviation Physical address Location type
(see defi nitions in the
University Terminology section)
CQUniversity Adelaide CQUniversity’s Adelaide
campus
ADL 44 Greenhill Road,
Wayville
Campus with dedicated
Distance Education
Study Centre
CQUniversity, Biloela
Study Centre
CQUniversity’s Biloela Study
Centre**
BLA 64 Valentine Plains
Road, Biloela
Study Centre
CQUniversity Brisbane CQUniversity’s Brisbane
campus
BNE 160 Ann Street,
Brisbane
Campus with Distance
Education Study Centre
CQUniversity Bundaberg CQUniversity’s Bundaberg
campus
BDG University Drive (off Isis
Highway), Bundaberg
Campus
CQUniversity, Cairns
Distance Education Study
Centre
CQUniversity’s Cairns Distance
Education Study Centre
CNS 36 Florence Street,
Cairns
Distance Education
Study Centre
CQUniversity, Charters
Towers Study Hub
CQUniversity’s Charters Towers
Study Hub in partnership with
the Dalrymple Trade Training
Centre.
CHT 1 – 13 Macpherson
Street, Charters Towers
Partner Study Hub
CQUniversity Emerald CQUniversity’s Emerald
campus**
EMD Capricorn Highway,
Emerald
Campus with dedicated
Distance Education
Study Centre
CQUniversity Gladstone,
Marina
CQUniversity’s Gladstone
Marina campus
GLDM Bryan Jordan Drive,
Gladstone
Campus
CQUniversity Gladstone,
City
CQUniversity’s Gladstone City
campus**
GLDC Derby Street, Gladstone Campus
CQUniversity Mackay,
Ooralea
CQUniversity’s Mackay Ooralea
campus**
MKYO Boundary Road,
Mackay
Campus and Trades
Training Centre
CQUniversity Mackay,
City
CQUniversity’s Mackay City
campus**
MKYC Sydney Street, Mackay Campus
CQUniversity Melbourne CQUniversity’s Melbourne
campus
MEL 108 Lonsdale Street,
Melbourne
Campus with dedicated
Distance Education
Study Centre
CQUniversity Noosa CQUniversity’s Noosa campus NSA 90 Goodchap Street
Noosaville
Campus
CQUniversity
Rockhampton, North
CQUniversity’s Rockhampton
North campus
ROKN Bruce Highway, North
Rockhampton
Campus
CQUniversity
Rockhampton, City
CQUniversity’s Rockhampton
City campus**
ROKC Canning Street,
Rockhampton
Campus
CQUniversity Sydney CQUniversity’s Sydney campus SYD 400 Kent Street, Sydney Campus with dedicated
Distance Education
Study Centre
CQUniversity, Townsville
Distance Education Study
Centre
CQUniversity’s Townsville
Distance Education Study Cent
TVL 1 Jones Street,
Townsville
Distance Education
Study Centre
CQUniversity, Yeppoon
Study Centre
CQUniversity’s Yeppoon Study
Centre**
YPN 26 Tabone Street,
Yeppoon
Study Centre
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CQUNIVERSITY WRITING STYLE GUIDELINE
Great Barrier Reef
Institute of Tafe,
Cannonvale Customer
Service Centre
N/A N/A Shute Harbour Road,
Cannonvale
Partner Study Hub
Geraldton Universities
Centre
N/A N/A 33 Onslow Street,
Geraldton
Partner Study Hub
Edithvale N/A N/A 256 Station Street,
Edithvale
Delivery Site
*Alternative variations such as ‘CQUniversity Gladstone campus’ or ‘Gladstone
campus’ should only be used in informal internal communications.
** The bracketed descriptor: (Former CQ TAFE), may be applied to names
where applicable to aid with identifi cation of newly named location.
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CQUNIVERSITY WRITING STYLE GUIDELINE
ate
PEOPLE AND PLACED CONTINUED
Building names and fl oors
When we direct people to an address, it’s important to follow
the same convention for the fl oor and building name. These
are the guides to follow:
» Leo Zussino Building
» Second Floor, Leo Zussino Building
» Second Floor, Leo Zussino Building, CQUniversity
Gladstone.
When they appear in a sentence, fl oor details are written out
in full and are not abbreviated:
Staff are located on the second fl oor (not 2nd fl oor).
Calls to action
Calls to action (or CTAs) appear prominently on many
marketing materials, directing and encouraging our readers to
act. The standard CTA for anyone wanting further information
from the University should be:
For more information, call 13 27 86 or visit cqu.edu.au. (Note
the former reference to 13CQuni is to be phased out of our
phone number reference).
After you have spelt the unit name out in full the fi rst time,
you may choose to use simply Directorate/Division/School/
Centre to refer to a specifi c unit after that. Just remember to
capitalise any subsequent occurrences – not just the fi rst one.
For example:
The School of Engineering and Technology provide a range of
orientation activities at the beginning of each term. New students
are encouraged to participate in all available School activities.
If you’re not talking about a specifi c unit, rather using it in
general terms, there’s no need to use capitals. For example:
A directorate is responsible for providing information.
Email contact details
The following format shows how we present contact details
for professional and academic staff on our emails. A digital
image (based on current campaign activity) must be included
in all University staff signatures. Staff will be reminded via an
offi cial lists email each time the image is to be updated. You
can download the latest digital baseplate at the marketing
directorate site on the portal at
https://my.cqu.edu.au/group/marketing/resources.
Email contact details (professional staff example)
<Title> <Firstname> <Lastname> <Letters>
Job Title | Centre or School/Directorate/Division
CQUniversity Location, Building, Street Address, City State Postcode
P +61 area code 0000 0000 (x0000) | M +61 400 000 000 | E [email protected]
Alastair Dawson
Deputy Vice-Chancellor (International and Services), CQUniversity Australia
CQUniversity Location, Building, Street Address, City State Postcode
P +61 7 4930 9515 (9515) | M 0419 669 867 | E [email protected]
Email contact details (academic staff example)
Professor Hilary Winchester M.A., D.Phil. Oxon
Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Academic and Research) | Higher Education Division
CQUniversity Rockhampton | Bruce Highway | North Rockhampton Qld 4702
P +61 7 4930 6731 | M +61 419 807 057 | F +61 7 4936 1691| E [email protected]
Names
Formal listings of staff should include their known name and
surname.
» Sarah Smith
If the person has a title, it should be used.
» Dr Antony Smith
» Professor Stan Otto
If we’re writing for a formal or external audience, position titles
are always written out in full. For instance:
» Professor Hilary Winchester
Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Academic and Research)
It’s vital that we spell names accurately. If addressing a staff
member always check names and titles against the current
organisational chart or website listing for the correct spelling,
capitalisation and hyphenation.
Phone numbers (ours)
We actively want to drive people to use 13 27 86 on all
external communications (note the phase out of the previous
13CQUni). Of course, there will be times when we need to
feature other numbers, particularly:
Domestic students +61 7 4930 9000 (outside Australia)
International students 1800 998 205 (within Australia)
International students +61 3 8676 7028 (outside Australia)
All marketing and student recruitment communications should
only refer to the 13 27 86 number to ensure there is one
consistently recognised phone number in the market and so
that call enquiries can be appropriately tracked and placed. Use
of alternate numbers for other activity is discouraged unless
circumstances dictate that a direct number is more practical.
Phone numbers (others)
When we’re featuring phone numbers other than our own,
please observe the following guidelines:
» In sentences and listed contact details, phone numbers
don’t require a bracket around the prefi x numbers.
» Spacing should apply as follows:
» For land lines and between the fi rst four and last four
numbers, e.g. 07 4930 9999.
» For mobile numbers after the fi rst four numbers then
between the last three, e.g. 0417 230 685.
International numbers should always use the country code
prefi x, e.g. +61 7 4930 9999 or +61 417 230 685.
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CQUNIVERSITY WRITING STYLE GUIDELINE
PEOPLE AND PLACED CONTINUED
Groups
Sometimes we refer to groups of people, for instance on
forms. We must ensure that we use appropriate and culturally
sensitive terminology when referring to groups. For example,
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people is the correct name
for this group. On forms, we must also ensure that we allow
people to choose from male, female and X gender options.
University
University is spelt with a lower case ‘u’ unless we are talking
specifi cally about CQUniversity. For instance:
Staff will be attending expos at a range of universities.
CQUniversity is playing host to the 2014 event.
The University (meaning CQUniversity) is introducing a
new program.
CAPITALISATION
Capitals
We do capital letters by the book. That means we use them
primarily at the start of sentences and in proper nouns.
However, there are some exceptions that are introduced below:
Institutional names
If you’re referring to specifi c institutional bodies, always use
capital letters. For instance:
» The Queensland Government
» Rio Tinto
» South Brisbane Institute of Tafe
Whenever we refer to one of the University’s major
organisational units, we always use capital letters. For instance:
» Centre for Environmental Management
» Higher Education Division
» Marketing Directorate
» School of Engineering and Technology
» Vice-Chancellor and President’s Division.
Where you’re referring to institutions in general terms – like
universities, schools and departments – you should be using
lower case.
Internet
The majority of dictionaries spell Internet with a capital ‘I’, and
we follow suit. So it should be:
» Internet, not internet.
Occupations or careers
We don’t use capital letters when we’re talking in general
terms about occupations – like accountant or engineer – but
we do if they’re part of a job title. For instance:
After graduation, Martin got a job as a Trainee Mining Engineer
at Emerald.
Since graduating, Martin has pursued a career as an engineer
at Emerald.
Study areas and specialisations
We use capital letters to denote subject area specialisations,
majors, minors and honours degrees. For instance:
A specialisation in Marketing.
Martin majored in Human Resources.
CQUniversity offers an honours degree in Industrial
Chemistry.
We also use a capital letter when the word forms part of a title,
even if the generic use of a term is not capitalised. For instance:
A masters degree can be taken.
He was awarded a Master of Management.
Susan Smith is a professor of English.
We welcome Professor Susan Smith.
NUMBERS
Dates
The examples below show the correct format for dates in text.
You’ll notice we don’t add an ‘st’ or a ‘th’ – but we do include a
comma when we specify a day.
» Thursday, 26 January 2014
» mid-2014
» mid-July
» mid-year
» 1950s or the fi fties (when written in full)
» c1950.
Dimensions
When describing the size of an area, we prefer to use
‘by’ instead of ‘x’ to better refl ect spoken English. It is
also acceptable to use digits under 10 when referring to
dimensions specifi cally:
» ‘20 m by 30 m’ – not ‘20 m x 30 m’.
» ‘8 m by 14 m’ – not ‘eight m x 14 m’
Money
Monetary amounts are always shown in fi gures with the
applicable currency symbol in front. Commas are not used,
and amounts in whole numbers do not include cents:
» $85.50
» $100
» $1500 (format will change to 1 500 in tables with a
thousands column)
» $25 000
» $250 000.
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CQUNIVERSITY WRITING STYLE GUIDELINE
NUMBERS CONTINUED
Amounts should usually be aligned to the right if placed in a
table. Symbols such as the ‘$’ symbol should be outlined in
the header of the table and not used throughout the rest of
the table.
Writing numbers
For the sake of consistency, please stick to the approved
formats below when writing numbers:
» For numbers one to nine, use words not digits, for example;
one, two, three … eight, nine (it is acceptable to use digits
in dimensions and tables)
» 10, 11, 12 through to 999 999
» 10 million
» one billion
» 2000, 20 000, 200 000
» 26 January 2013
» one percent (it is acceptable to use % in listings and tables)
» 11 percent (it is acceptable to use % in listings and tables)
» one-third
» GPA score of 5.0
» Page 1 of 1.
When describing dimensions, be sure to use words rather
than digits. For example:
» Two dimensional – not 2 dimensional.
Number ranges
In text, we use ‘from’ and ‘to’ when we want to indicate a
range of numbers. For example:
» Student ages range from 20 to 24
» Offi ce hours are from 10 am to 6 pm.
In tables, we separate the range by an en dash*, with spaces
either side of it, as in ‘60 – 70’. It is acceptable to apply this in
other circumstances where improved alignment, formatting or
legibility is the rationale.
* What’s an en dash? (–)
An en dash is used to connect two items (usually numbers)
that designate a range. You can create an en dash in
Microsoft Offi ce Suite applications by pressing Ctrl+- on
the Number Pad. An en dash should not be confused with
an em dash which can be used for emphasis or interruption
to offset a word or phrase. The em dash can be created by
pressing Ctrl+Alt+- on the Number Pad.
Time
Please observe the following formats when writing times:
» 10 am or 11 pm
» 10.15 am or 3.30 pm
» 10.15 am – 7.30 pm (for program schedules where the
times are set out underneath each other)
» 10 am – 7 pm or 4 – 7 pm (for setting out single time slots)
» noon
» midnight.
DISCLAIMERS AND
NOTES
Disclaimers
Disclaimers appear at the bottom of the page where the
original comment is and are identifi ed by the same symbol or
number that appears in the text. We should strive to keep our
disclaimers consistent across our publications. Some of the
most common disclaimers we use appear below:
Disclaimer examples:
» This program is subject to fi nal University approval. Please
visit our website or contact us for more information.
» This program is under review and may be subject to
change. Please visit our website or contact us for more
information.
» Changes are expected to this program. Please visit our
website or contact us for more information.
» This program is expected to be available from <Term 1,
2015>, subject to fi nal approval. Please visit our website or
contact us for more information.
» Not all specialisations/majors/minors are available at all
locations. Please visit our website or contact us for more
information.
» Not all years of the program are available at all locations.
Please visit our website or contact us for more information.
» International students can only undertake this program
from an overseas location by distance education.
ESOS
The Education Services for Overseas Students (ESOS) Act helps
to protect the rights of international students by enforcing quality
educational standards. Whenever we are writing publications
that may reach an international audience, we should place the
following approved wording near other publication information:
» CQUniversity Australia and the Australian Government
want international students in Australia to have a safe,
enjoyable and rewarding place to study. Australia’s laws
promote quality education and consumer protection for
international students. These laws are known as the ESOS
framework. For further information, please visit
cqu.edu.au/esos.
Notes
When needed, notes are added above the disclaimers. A
colon is used after the ‘Note’ and the following sentence
begins with a capital letter. For instance:
» Note: For more information, call 13 27 86 or visit cqu.edu.au.
» Note: All applicants are screened against the genuine
temporary entrant and genuine student criteria as defi ned
by the Department of Border Protection (DIBP). For
more information on applying to CQUniversity, please
refer to www.cqu.edu.au/internationalapply. Please
ensure that you refer to the ‘English Language Profi ciency
Requirements’ following in ‘Information for all Students.’
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CQUNIVERSITY WRITING STYLE GUIDELINE
UNIVERSITY TERMINOLOGY
When we describe the University’s products and services to an external audience, it’s important that we use consistent
terminology. The terminology we use has changed to accommodate our portfolio post our merger with CQ TAFE on 1 July 2014 .
Please see below a glossary of preferred terminology when communicating to an external audience.
Note: The terminology and defi nitions below have been endorsed for use, pending fi nal approval from Academic Board. Some changes are expected between now
and the next scheduled update.
Commonly used terminology Preferred Terminology
(Approved for use 2014/2015)
Defi nition/s and/or notes
Award, Qualifi cation Award or Qualifi cation A degree, diploma or certifi cate of the University listed in
the programs section of the student handbook. Certifi cation
awarded to a person on successful completion of an accredited
course or program, in recognition of having achieved particular
knowledge, skills or competencies.
Non-award study,
non-accredited courses
Non-award study A generic term meaning study for a course that does not lead
the student to an award; available to those wishing to update or
expand their knowledge in a specifi c discipline without being
committed to completing a program. For vocational courses this
means the course is not assessed.
Non-award course Non-award course A course or courses of study from an award program or
programs at the institution and is able to be counted as credit
towards some award program at the institution by all students
who complete the course.
Statement of Attainment Statement of Attainment In relation to units of competency or module of a VET course,
means a statement given to a person confi rming that the
person has satisfi ed the requirements of units of competency or
modules specifi ed in the statement.
Higher Education, Higher
Education Program
1.Education (or study) and training
2.Undergraduate, postgraduate (and
Research) degrees
3.Degree-level
As we endeavour to present our offerings as part of a more
comprehensive university that promote seamless pathways
between study options, the use of segregating study level terms
is discouraged. Instead our programs and courses should be
generally referred to using the language ‘education and training’
wherever possible. If further description is required then use of
the particular program type is recommended e.g. certifi cates
and diplomas or undergraduate and postgraduate degrees.
Where the sector description must be used then ‘Vocational’
and ‘Degree-level’ study.
Vocational Education and
Training, VET
1. Education and training
2. Certifi cates and diplomas
3. Vocational
Program, degree, course When describing
Higher Education:
Program
When describing
Vocational Education
and Training:
Course
When describing Higher
Education:
A program is the combination
of courses, that make up the
full degree award with which
a student graduates, such as a
Bachelor of Arts.
When describing Vocational
Education and Training:
A course is the combination
of units that make-up the full
award with which a student
graduates.
Course, subject, unit, unit of
study, unit of competency
When describing
Higher Education:
Course
When describing
Vocational Education
and Training:
Unit
When describing Higher
Education programs:
A course is a component of a
program, normally taken over
a single term. On completion
of the term a grade is awarded
that is entered on to the
student’s academic record.
Note: Units of credit (UC): This
term refers to the minimum
value of a course.
When describing Vocational
Education and Training:
A unit is a component of a
course.
Note that when VET FEE-Help is
incorporated, a unit may be a single
unit of competence or a cluster/
group of units of competence.
Core course, core unit When describing
Higher Education:
Core course
When describing
Vocational Education
and Training:
Core unit
A compulsory component of a
program.
A compulsory component of a
course.
Elective course, elective unit When describing
Higher Education:
Elective course
When describing
Vocational Education
and Training:
Elective unit
A course that a student may
choose to study in a program
that is not a core, compulsory
course.
A unit that a student may
choose to study in a course
that is not a core, compulsory
unit.
Enabling, access, preparatory
programs
Work and study preparation programs/
Preparatory program
A preparatory, prevocational or bridging course that prepares
students for further study or training.
Dual offer Dual offer A range of dual award and double degree programs currently
offered by CQUniversity in partnership with a number of tertiary
institutes to TAFE and VET to seamlessly transition from their
vocational studies to a CQUniversity degree.
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CQUNIVERSITY WRITING STYLE GUIDELINE
Dual degree, double degree,
dual award
Dual degree A program which allows students to work towards completing
two different CQUniversity degrees, fi nishing them in less time
than it would take to study them separately.
Undergraduate, undergrad, UG Undergraduate Normally the fi rst degree undertaken at university. Examples are
diploma, associate degree or bachelor.
Postgraduate, postgrad, PG Postgraduate Higher-level study usually undertaken after completion of an
undergraduate degree. Examples are graduate certifi cate,
graduate diploma, master or doctorate.
Higher Research Degree,
Higher Education Research
Program
Research Higher Degree (RHD) Program for which at least two-thirds of the student load for the
program is required as research work and not more than onethird
as coursework.
Accredited Short Course/Non
accredited Short Course/ ACE
Short course Accredited: A course that provides a level of certifi cation
(usually a Statement of Attainment) that is designed to provide
introductory knowledge and/or skills on a topic.
Non accredited: Often referred to as Adult Community Education
(ACE) courses provide skills to learn towards an accredited
course. Open to people aged 15 years of age and generally 2–3
hours per week over 6–8 weeks, or full day workshops covering
hobby and lifestyle topics such as art and craft, cooking and
languages.
Certifi cate I – IV Certifi cate (Cert) I – IV A set of qualifi cations awarded in the vocational education
and training sector and recognised under the Australian
Qualifi cations Framework (AQF). The four levels of certifi cate
recognise increasing levels of skill.
Apprenticeship Apprenticeship A system of training regulated by law or custom that combines
on-the-job training and work experience while in paid
employment with formal off-the-job training. The apprentice
enters into a contract of training or training agreement with
an employer that imposes mutual obligations on both parties.
Traditionally, apprenticeships were in trade occupations
(declared vocations) and were of four years’ duration.
Traineeship Traineeship A system of vocational training, combining off-the-job training
at an approved training provider with on-the-job training and
practical work experience. Traineeships generally take one
to two years and are now a part of the New Apprenticeships
system.
Trade course Trade (course) A course that covers the off-the-job requirements of an
apprenticeship and supplements on-the-job training, now being
replaced by training package qualifi cations. A trade course can
also be a pre-vocational course or a non-apprenticeship course.
Degree Degree An award at bachelor, master or doctoral level that may be
conferred by the University Council.
Diploma Diploma An award at diploma, advanced diploma or graduate diploma
level that may be conferred by the University Council.
Intake dates, intakes, start
dates
Intake The term/s or dates in which new students can commence or
enter a program. Traditionally, limited programs have Term 2 and
Term 3 intakes.
Note: Term 2 intake is sometimes referred to as ‘mid-year’.
Duration, length Duration This is the minimum time required to complete a degree in either
full-time or part-time mode.
Term, Semester Term A term is a 12 week period of time (normally with a vacation
week during the period) when lectures and tutorials are held and
when assessment pieces fall due.
Effective Date: 11 August 2014. Once PRINTED, this is an UNCONTROLLED DOCUMENT. Refer to Policy Portal for latest version. CQUniversity CRICOS Provider Code: 00219C 14
CQUNIVERSITY WRITING STYLE GUIDELINE
Type of attendance, load,
study load, full-time, part-time
Type of attendance; full-time or part-time Attendance is classifi ed by the institution as being full-time or
part-time based on the student load for the student aggregated
across all courses (including work experience in industry
courses) for all programs being undertaken by the student in the
collection year.
Full-time:
Student load aggregated for all the courses being undertaken by
the student in the collection year is 0.75 or more.
A full-time load is not less than 75% of a standard full-time
academic load of 48 units of credit taken over the terms of an
academic year. A student enrolled for at least 36 units of credit
for an academic year is carrying a full-time load. A student
enrolled for 18 units of credit in a single term may be classifi ed
as full-time for that term.
Four courses per term.
(Note: International students must maintain a standard full-time
academic load of 48 units of credit across the academic year to
fulfi l visa requirements.)
Part-time:
Student load aggregated for all the courses being undertaken by
the student in the collection year is less than 0.75.
A student who is enrolled for less than three quarters of a
standard full-time load over an academic year. A standard fulltime
load is 48 units of credit.
One or two courses per term.
Mode of study variations:
on-campus, online, distance,
on-site, blended, external,
internal, fl exible, mixed
delivery, multi-modal.
On-campus
Distance education (can be shortened to
Distance)
Blended
On-site
A defi nition of the mode in which a student is undertaking
attendance in a program.
Four delivery modes are available:
On-campus – conducted where there is a need for students to
regularly attend classes at a CQUniversity location.
Distance Education – where there is no need to regularly attend
classes on a campus. Study is undertaken using online means
and may involve some instruction through face-to-face contact
(as in a residential school), on-line teaching, or other forms of
instruction (such as teleconferencing).
Blended – a combination of study modes usually including
on-campus and on-site learning particularly relevant to practical
programs such as apprenticeships and trades.
On-site – study undertaken at a nominated workplace as part of
an in-built training program delivered by CQUniversity. Not to be
confused with work integrated learning.
Locations, availability Availability This denotes in which modes of study the program is available
and at which CQUniversity locations, or by distance education,
where the student is able to study the program.
Residential school, res school,
intensive
Residential school Residential schools can be compulsory or recommended and are
an important part of the program allowing students to network
with lecturers, students and industry specialists, whilst getting
hands-on, practical experience. On average residential schools
are 2–5 days in length and students are required to attend an
intensive schedule of classes at a nominated campus.
Residential schools are provided exclusively for students
studying by distance education and in many instances, the
requirements for attendance is dependent upon courses
selected
Career opportunities,
career outcomes, Career
opportunities, career
outcomes, career information
Career opportunities Career opportunities describes the occupations, industries and
work-related roles that a program aims to prepare a graduate for.
Effective Date: 11 August 2014. Once PRINTED, this is an UNCONTROLLED DOCUMENT. Refer to Policy Portal for latest version. CQUniversity CRICOS Provider Code: 00219C 15
CQUNIVERSITY WRITING STYLE GUIDELINE
Entry requirements,
pre-requisites, recommended
study, assumed knowledge
When describing
Undergraduate
programs
Prerequisites or
Recommended
study (see
defi nitions)
When describing
Vocational Education
and Training,
Postgraduate or
Research programs
Entry requirements
When describing
Undergraduate programs
Prerequisites are secondary
school subjects that form
part of the minimum entry
requirements for a program.
Prerequisites are expressed as
minimum achievement levels
in specifi c senior subjects.
For example ‘English (4,SA)’
indicates that the Queensland
Studies Authority subject
‘English’ (or equivalent) must
have been studied over four
semesters (i.e. Year 11 and 12)
and an overall Exit Assessment
of ‘Sound Achievement’ or
better obtained.
Recommended study refers
to subjects that are not
compulsory, it is strongly
recommended that the
applicant have knowledge of
these subjects.
Note: Undergraduate
programs may have other
entry requirements such as an
audition or interview and these
should be described as ‘entry
requirements’.
When describing Vocational
Education and Training,
Postgraduate or Research
programs
Entry requirements refer to
the minimum level of prior
education, training, experience,
knowledge or skill a
prospective student is required
to demonstrate in order to gain
entry into a program.
These requirements come
from the Training Package
for each qualifi cation and in
some circumstances additional
criteria will apply where other
accrediting agencies apply.
Program structure, course
structure
Program structure The program structure details the courses students must
complete and the number of units of credit that must be
obtained in order to fulfi l the program’s requirements.
Minor Minor Four courses in a specialist discipline which must include at least
two advanced level courses.
Major Major Six courses in a specialist discipline area which must include at
least four advanced level courses.
Specialisation Specialisation An area of specialisation within a course or degree focusing on a
particular fi eld of study.
Exit award Exit award An award that may be available to students unable to fulfi l the
requirements of the program for which they are enrolled.
Interim award Interim award An interim award is an award given to a student upon completion
of a component of a degree program, while still remaining
enrolled within the original degree program.
Application Application When a prospective student applies for entry into a program,
directly to the University or via a Tertiary Admission Centre.
Direct Entry Direct Entry When a prospective student applies directly to the University for
a program or course.
Admission, Offer Admission Admission is the process by which a person has been issued
a formal offer to enrol for a particular program in a particular
academic year, and the offer has been formally accepted.
Enrolment Enrolment The process by which an applicant, having been made a
written offer of admission to a particular program, selects
appropriate courses to study within the program for that year
or term and pays the required tuition fees and other required
charges. Enrolment involves a contract being formed between
the student and the University. Subsequently, re-enrolment is
required at an interval of not less than annually for as long as the
student is an active candidate for an award.
Articulation Articulation The transferring, with credit being granted for study successfully
completed, from another program either within the University or
outside the University to a higher level of study within the same
discipline area.
Cost, fees, fees and charges Fee Includes any amount payable under a University Statute or
University Rule.
Tuition Fee Tuition Fee A fee chargeable in respect of the cost of teaching and related
services, administration and capital facilities relating to courses
for a program of the institution in which a student is enrolled
at the institution, or where those courses for that program are
being undertaken in an off-shore entity.
Effective Date: 11 August 2014. Once PRINTED, this is an UNCONTROLLED DOCUMENT. Refer to Policy Portal for latest version. CQUniversity CRICOS Provider Code: 00219C 16
CQUNIVERSITY WRITING STYLE GUIDELINE
Professional recognition,
professional accreditation,
accreditation and membership
Professional recognition This denotes whether the program is recognised or accredited,
or leads to the graduate being recognised or accredited, by
registered industry bodies.
Defer Defer A student who is made an offer of admission to a program may
take up the offer at a future date. A student may defer when
initially offered a position (from school or elsewhere) or during a
period of enrolment in a particular course. The maximum period
of deferment is 12 months.
Recognition of prior learning,
credit transfer, credit for
previous study, prior learning,
advanced standing, RPL
Recognition of prior learning The acknowledgement of a person’s skills and knowledge acquired
through previous education, training, work or life experience,
which may be used to grant status or credit in a course.
Practicum, practical
experience, work experience,
industry placement, work
placement, work integrated
learning
Work integrated learning A practical experience component of a course or program. A
number of programs, especially those accredited by professional
bodies, require students to undertake work experience relevant
to the profession.
The component generates credit which counts towards a
course’s total credit requirement. It is undertaken through paid or
unpaid work and associated instruction in an organisation other
than the institution. It involves regular and planned supervision
and instruction of the student. The supervision and instruction is
undertaken in accordance with guidelines agreed between the
institution and the organisation.
Domestic student Domestic student A domestic student is an Australian citizen, New Zealand citizen,
permanent resident or holder of an Australian permanent
humanitarian visa.
International student International student An international student is a person who is not an Australian
citizen, New Zealand citizen or an Australian Permanent Resident.
An international student may hold an Australian student visa, or
they may be in Australia on a different visa, or they may reside
outside Australia and study by distance education.
Non-school leaver Non-school leaver A student enrolled in a program who does not meet the criteria
of a school leaver.
School leaver School leaver A student enrolled in a program having completed the fi nal
year (Year 12 or equivalent) of secondary education and who
has not completed a prior qualifi cation higher than fi nal year of
secondary education and who completed the fi nal year (Year 12
or equivalent) of secondary education in the current year or the
previous two years.
Campus Campus A Campus is a CQUniversity location with student facilitates
such as libraries, lecture theatres and other learning spaces,
student advice centers and commercial outlets such as food and
beverage. Campuses can be accessed by both on-campus and
distance education students.
Study Centre Study Centre A Study Centre is a CQUniversity location that is a smaller version
of a campus. While you will fi nd staff and teaching facilities here,
these Study Centres usually don’t have a full range of services,
for example commercial outlets and food and beverage.
Study Hub/Service Centre Partner Study Hub A Partner Study Hub is a CQUniversity location where students
can drop in to utilise Internet and computing facilities and access
information about CQUniversity programs and services. Partner
Study Hubs are operated in collaboration with CQUniversity
partners such as TAFE and other community organisations.
While limited student facilities and services are available at
Study Hubs, our friendly staff can help you get in touch with
other CQUniversity staff and services.
Distance Education Study
Centre
Distance Education Study Centre A Distance Education Study Centre is a CQUniversity location
that caters specifi cally for distance education students, offering
facilities such as study rooms, meeting rooms, computing and
videoconferencing, internet access and access to staff who can
assist with student enquiries. Our Distance Education Study
Centres provide quiet study space away from home or work.
Delivery Site Delivery Site A Delivery Site is a CQUniversity location where students may
need to attend to complete a component of their program.
Effective Date: 11 August 2014. Once PRINTED, this is an UNCONTROLLED DOCUMENT. Refer to Policy Portal for latest version. CQUniversity CRICOS Provider Code: 00219C 17
CQUNIVERSITY WRITING STYLE GUIDELINE
S Pr
WRITING FOR
SOCIAL MEDIA
Social media is a fast-paced medium where users consume
content at a much faster rate than other more traditional
mediums. For this reason, the way in which the University
writes for social media must refl ect the needs of the
consumers. Many social media platforms have restrictions on
the number of characters that can be used in a post or update
that needs to be taken into account. For these reasons, some
exceptions to this guideline have been made specifi cally for
social media.
» CQUniversity Australia should always be referred to as the
offi cial handle for the profi le:
» Facebook: /CQUniversityAustralia
» Twitter: @CQUni
» LinkedIn: CQUniversity Australia
» YouTube: CQUni
» Instagram: cquniversity
» Ampersands: Although it is against the Style Guidelines to use
‘&’ except for when referring to the name of an organisation,
when posting on social media an ampersand may only
be used if there is no way to reduce the content without
removing the meaning. Reasonable judgement is required.
» Dates and time: As with ampersands, if, using reasonable
judgement it makes more sense to reduce the day, or date
to fi t the message into the update, shortened versions of
the date can be used:
» Thursday, 26 January 2014 can be shortened to Thurs,
26 Jan 2014 or;
» 11 am – 3 pm can be shortened to 11am–3pm.
All content, posts and promotion should endeavour to use
inclusive language, adopting a brand suitable tone-of-voice
that encourages students, staff and wider community to feel
welcome to connect and engage online with CQUniversity.
Content should be considerate of the platform audience and
contribute to the conversation rather than be of a hijacking or
self-promoting nature.
Any CQUniversity representative posting on social media on
behalf of the University must have undertaken Social Media
Moderator training and abide by the Social Media Policy
available on the Policy Portal. For further information contact
[email protected]
Effective Date: 11 August 2014. Once PRINTED, this is an UNCONTROLLED DOCUMENT. Refer to Policy Portal for latest version. CQUniversity CRICOS Provider Code: 00219C 18
CQUNIVERSITY WRITING STYLE GUIDELINE
ni
CQUNIVERSITY OVERVIEWS
You may like to include a general overview of the University in your copy writing or you may be requested to supply an overview
for use in external publications. For your convenience we’ve prepare the following standard CQUniversity overviews.
Corporate Version Sales Version
Full version CQUniversity Australia has a unique and interesting history.
The University was originally founded in Rockhampton
in 1967 and was known as the Queensland Institute of
Technology (Capricornia). By 1974 it was among only a few
Australian institutes to commence the delivery of distance
education.
Between 1978 and 1989 further campuses were established
in Bundaberg, Emerald, Gladstone, and Mackay and in 1992
the Institute achieved full University status to become known
as Central Queensland University. Along with locations in
regional Queensland, CQUniversity has also expanded its
presence throughout Australia with campuses in Adelaide,
Brisbane, Melbourne, Noosa and Sydney, Study Centres
in Biloela and Yeppoon, Cairns and Townsville Distance
Education Study Centres, a delivery site in Edithvale, Victoria,
and Partner Study Hubs in Cannonvale and Charters Towers,
Queensland and Geraldton, Western Australia.
Now more than 20 years on, and following a merger with
CQ TAFE on 1 July 2014, CQUniversity is responsible for
providing a diverse range of training and education programs
and courses to more than 30,000 students studying
qualifi cations from certifi cate to post doctorate level.
Study areas include Apprenticeships, Trades and Training,
Business, Accounting and Law, Creative, Performing and
Visual Arts, Education and Humanities, Engineering and Built
Environment, Health, Information Technology and Digital
Media, Psychology, Social Work and Community Services,
Science and Environment, and Work and Study Preparation.
The merger with CQ TAFE saw the establishment of
Queensland’s fi rst dual sector university, providing a more
comprehensive approach to education, training, research and
engagement in the central Queensland region and beyond.
CQUniversity continues to be a leader in the delivery of
distance education with approximately half of the student
cohort being made up of students studying by distance
education. Compared to other universities, CQUniversity is
also proud to have the highest ratio of students from mature
age, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander, fi rst-in-family and
low socio-economic backgrounds. The University defi nes
itself by who it embraces rather than who it excludes, and
because of this is widely recognised as Australia’s most
inclusive university.
What’s more, CQUniversity students have some of the best
graduate outcomes, with recent data released by Graduate
Careers Australia indicating that CQUniversity has an overall
full-time graduate employment rate of 81.1 percent. This
figure is almost 10 percent higher than the national average
of 71.3 percent for Australian resident bachelor degree
graduates.
CQUniversity has also established itself as a research
focused university and in the 2012 Excellence in Research
Australia rankings the University was rated at or above world
standard in the areas of agriculture, applied mathematics,
nursing, and medical and health sciences.
CQUniversity is among Australia’s most engaged universities
and throughout the years has formed valuable partnerships
with government, community and industry groups, right
across the national university footprint and overseas.
CQUniversity Australia has one of the largest and
fastest-growing footprints of any university in Australia.
Renowned as one of the nation’s most inclusive universities
and following a merger with CQ TAFE, CQUniversity is now
a more comprehensive university, opening its doors wider,
making university even more accessible and applicable to
more people.
Our new line up includes hundreds of education and training
options from short courses, certifi cates and diplomas to
undergraduate, postgraduate and research higher degrees.
Choose from a wide variety of programs and courses
from areas including Apprenticeships, Trades and Training,
Business, Accounting and Law, Creative, Performing and
Visual Arts, Education and Humanities, Engineering and Built
Environment, Health, Information Technology and Digital
Media, Psychology, Social Work and Community Services,
Science and Environment, and Work and Study Preparation.
Study on-campus at one of our many locations including
Adelaide, Biloela, Brisbane, Bundaberg, Emerald, Gladstone
City, Gladstone Marina, Mackay City, Mackay Ooralea,
Melbourne, Noosa, Rockhampton City, Rockhampton North,
Sydney or Yeppoon, or choose distance education and study
where and how it suits you.
As a distance education student you will benefi t from
ongoing support and access to dedicated Distance Education
Study Centres in Adelaide, Brisbane, Cairns, Emerald,
Melbourne, Sydney and Townsville. We also offer support
through Partner Study Hubs in Cannonvale, Charters Towers
and Geraldton with plans to open more sites in the near
future.
Providing positive graduate outcomes is a core focus – we’ve
designed our degrees alongside industry to prepare you
with up-to-date, real-world skills and our award winning
teaching professionals are widely experienced with a
practical approach and dedication to continual program
improvements. Our student body is diverse and come from
both local and global communities. We are committed to
providing specialist education and training support and a
range of career-orientated services to ensure our graduates
are successful.
No matter whether you’re just fi nishing school or thinking of
taking up a new challenge, choose CQUniversity to help you
be what you want to be.
Effective Date: 11 August 2014. Once PRINTED, this is an UNCONTROLLED DOCUMENT. Refer to Policy Portal for latest version. CQUniversity CRICOS Provider Code: 00219C 19
CQUNIVERSITY WRITING STYLE GUIDELINE
st ver
Short use
version
(Recommended
for usage where
a word limit of
200 or less words
applies)
CQUniversity Australia was originally founded in
Rockhampton in 1967 and was known as the Queensland
Institute of Technology (Capricornia). By 1974 it was among
only a few Australian institutes to commence the delivery of
distance education.
Between 1978 and 1989, further campuses were established
in Gladstone, Mackay, Bundaberg and Emerald, and in
1992 the Institute achieved full university status to become
known as Central Queensland University. Since this time,
CQUniversity has expanded its presence throughout
Australia with campuses in Adelaide, Noosa, Brisbane,
Sydney, Melbourne and a number of Distance Education
Study Centres and Partner Study Hubs throughout Australia.
Now more than 20 years on and following a merger with
CQ TAFE on 1 July 2014, CQUniversity is responsible for
providing a diverse range of training and education programs
to more than 30,000 students studying qualifi cations from
certifi cate to post doctorate level.
The merger with CQ TAFE also saw the establishment of
Queensland’s fi rst dual sector university, providing a more
comprehensive approach to education, training, research and
engagement in the central Queensland region and beyond.
CQUniversity Australia has one of the largest and
fastest-growing footprints of any university in Australia.
Renowned as one of the nation’s most inclusive universities
and following a merger with CQ TAFE, CQUniversity is now
a more comprehensive university, opening its doors wider,
making university even more accessible and applicable to more
people.
Choose from hundreds of education and training options,
across a variety of study areas, including Apprenticeships,
Trades and Training, Business, Accounting and Law, Creative,
Performing and Visual Arts, Education and Humanities,
Engineering and Built Environment, Health, Information
Technology and Digital Media, Psychology, Social Work and
Community Services, Science and Environment, and Work
and Study Preparation.
Study on-campus at one of our many locations or choose
distance education and benefi t from ongoing support and
access to dedicated Distance Education Study Centres
located across Australia.
The programs and courses we offer are designed alongside
industry, to prepare you with up-to-date, real-world
knowledge and skills.
Our award winning and widely experienced teaching
professionals are dedicated to continual program improvements
and we are committed to providing a range of career-orientated
services to ensure our graduates are successful.
No matter where you are in your career, CQUniversity can
help you be what you want to be.
Limited use
version
(Recommended
for use where a
word limit of 100
words or less
applies)
CQUniversity Australia is Australia’s most inclusive and
engaged university. The University has a truly national
presence with more than 20 locations including multiple
campuses, Distance Education Study Centres and other
delivery sites nationwide.
On 1 July 2014, CQUniversity merged with CQ TAFE to
establish Queensland’s fi rst dual sector university, offering
a more comprehensive approach to education, training,
research and engagement in the central Queensland region
and beyond.
CQUniversity Australia has one of the largest footprints of
any university in Australia, proudly offering a wide variety of
education and training options.
Our programs and courses are designed alongside industry,
to prepare you with up-to-date, real-world knowledge and
skills.
Choose to study on-campus at one of our many locations or
by distance education and benefi t from our award winning
and experienced teaching professionals, as well as our focus
on student services and support.
No matter where you are in your career, CQUniversity can
help you be what you want to be.
Extra limited
use version
(Recommended
for use where a
word limit of 50
words or less
applies)
CQUniversity Australia is Australia’s most inclusive and
engaged university. The University has a truly national
presence with more than 20 locations nationwide.
On 1 July 2014 CQUniversity became Queensland’s fi rst dual
sector university, offering a more comprehensive approach to
education, training, research and engagement in the central
Queensland region and beyond.
CQUniversity Australia has one of the largest footprints
of any university in Australia, offering a wide variety of
education and training options.
Choose to study on-campus at one of our many locations
or by distance education and benefi t from programs and
courses designed to prepare you with up-to-date, real-world
knowledge and skills.
WE’RE HERE TO
HELP
While every effort has been made to provide clear and concise
writing guidelines, if you have any questions, concerns
or suggestions for improvement, please don’t hesitate to
contact Marketing Services on (07) 4923 2732 or email
[email protected]


 

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