theory of personality

theory of personality

List and define the five traits included in the Big Five theory of personality. What are the limitations of this approach?

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The Big Five theory of personality traits is described as extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness.

1.      Extraversion: Includes characteristics such as enthusiasm, sociability, dominance, talkativeness and energetic. It also refers to people that is shy, submissive and quite as an extrovert.

2.      Agreeableness is individuals who are friendly, warm, trusting and cooperative. On the other hand, individuals who are low on this component are usually cold, confrontational and unkind.

3.      Conscientiousness: dimension includes people who are dependable, courteous, persistent, and responsible and organize. It also characterizes some people as being impulsive, these individuals tend to be careless, undependable and antisocial.

4.      Neuroticism: Are individuals, who are emotional instability, they tend to be nervous, moody, sad and anxious. While emotionally sound individuals are usually calm and contented.

5.      Openness this trait highlight characteristics such as imagination, insightful, witty, original and artistic. Individuals who are low on openness tend to be shallow and plain (Friedman& Schustack, 2012).

The limitation of the Big Five theory is it cannot accurately predict any particular behavior for the simple fact that, human behavior is formed on many different factors, not only personality. The model is also limited by its extensive Universalism doctrines. For instance, when we think of a person, one must consider all facets such as religious beliefs, and philosophical concepts with universal application. The Big Five does not give us a better understanding of gender, culture, age, or personality expressions. Friedman& Schustack (2012) suggest that, “One has to be careful when using the big five personality trait because it can underestimate some avenue of other parts of our personality and the role in a social situation. It sometimes fails to notice personal situation or even the fact that basic dimensions do a better job in describing some person than others (Friedman& Schustack, 2012, p. 275)

 

Discussion 2 – Week 7

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List and define three of Henry Murray’s needs. For one of the needs, provide an example of an occupation that would help to satisfy that need and explain why. For another need, describe how the need can cause trouble for a person in an occupational role.

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Henry Murray created the personality theory which focused on our basic needs which he called psychogenic needs.  He believed that the human needs were mostly at an unconscious level. He defined a need as a potentiality to react in a specific way under certain known circumstances. Friedman& Schustack (2012), “Murray’s needs are as followed:

1. Affiliation- which is the need for closeness that is returned by someone else.

2. Autonomy- is the need for independence

3. Dominance- this is the need to influence or control someone else.

4. Exhibition- is classified as the need to be seen and heard

5. Harm-avoidance- this is characterize as the need to be cautious and avoid injury.

6. Nurturance- is the need to help and care for the weak.

7. Order – is considered to organize things

8. Play – it is the need to have fun and enjoy life

9. Sex- the need for intimacy

10. Succorance this the need to nurtured, loved and controlled.

11. Understanding is the need to explore, simplify and speculate” (Friedman & Schustack, 2012, p. 324).

For one of the needs, provide an example of an occupation that would help to satisfy that need and explain why? Dominance is the desire to influence or control others. An example of an occupation would be a manager because of their need to have control over others. A manager tends to have a high need for power which gives them the ability to rate an employee higher if the employee has the ability to complement the topic. Whereas those with low or moderate need for power rate employees the same.

 

For another need, describe how the need can cause trouble for a person in an occupational role. The need for affiliation can be troublesome in the workforce because their need for closeness, it will not always be reciprocated. In an occupational role if an individual does not feel as if they can trust the people that they work with, then work becomes stressful and the job will not be fulfilling. Studies shows, “People who score high in the affiliation need are unpopular, apt to avoid interpersonal conflicts, and likely to be unsuccessful as business managers. These tendencies may be due to their high level of anxiety about whether other people will like them. They may act in an overly assertive manner to avoid any possible rejection” (Anonymous, 2008, p.195).

 

 

 

Anonymous (2008). Henry Murray: Personology. Retrieved from http://cengagesites.com/academic/assets/sites/Schultz_Ch05.pdf

 

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